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104 Cards in this Set

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Acculturation
The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another.
Adaptive Strategies
Describes a society's system of economic production, and helps explain some of the differences between societies that are influenced by economy.
Animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life
Artifact
An item from the past (such as a dinosaur bone, or something made by humans in the past.
Assimilation
the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
Baha'i
Started in Iran in 1800s. Bahai is based on two people. Bahai doesn't take the Qur'an literally. They don't believe in angels or devils. Heaven or Hell are not places they are condition of the soul. All religions come from the same source.
Barrio
Slums in Spanish-speaking countries
Behaviors
Observable actions of responses of humans or animals
Beliefs
specific ideas that people hold to be true
Buddhism
a world religion or philosophy based on the teaching of the Buddha and holding that a state of enlightenment can be attained by suppressing worldly desire
Christianity
Religion from the Middle East stressing salvation, forgiveness, and the divinity of Jesus. Predominant religion in the West.
Confucianism
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
Contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
Cultural Adaptation
new people adapt to the culture of the previously existing people
Cultural core/periphery
Similar to a cultural hearth, the idea that the core houses main cultural power of region and the outlying region or periphery houses lesser cultural ties.
cultural determinism
Cultural determinism is the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels. This supports thelandscap theory that environmental influences dominate who we are instead of biologically inherited traits.
Cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
Cultural ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Cultural geography
The subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space.
Cultural hearths
Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture
Cultural Identity
One's belief in belonging to a group or certain cultural aspect
Cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
Cultural relativism
the practice of judging a culture by its own standards
Cultural Shatterbelt
a politically unstable region where differing cultural elements come into contact and conflict. Cultural clashes. For example, Indonesia with a background of multicultural, ethnicities and religions.
Cultural transmission
the process by which one generation passes culture to the next
Culture Complex
A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be assoc. with religious beliefs or business practices).
Culture Region
An area in which people have many shared culture traits
Culture system
A collection of interacting elements taken together shape a group's collective identity. Includes traits, territorial affiliation, shared history, and more complex elements, like language
Culture trait
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
Daoism (Taoism)
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Diasporas
the migration of religious or ethnic groups to foreign lands despite their continued affiliation with the land and customs of their origin
Dowry death
disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom (the dowry) have, in some extreme cases, lead to the death of the bride.
Eastern Orthodox
derived from the Byzantine Church and adhering to Byzantine rites
Enclave
an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it
Environmental determinism
the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
Ethnic cleansing
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
Ethnic conflict
war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism or fight over natural resources. Ethnic conflict often includes genocide. It can also be caused by boundary disputes
Ethnicity
The identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of a common heredity and cultural traditions (e.g. Native Americans)
Ethnic Neighborhood
an area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background
Ethnic religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Ethnocentrism
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
Exclave
A portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country.
Favela
Slums in Brazil
Feng Shui
Rules in Chinese philosophy that govern spatial arrangement and orientation in relation to patterns of yin and yang and the flow of energy (qi)
Folk culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Folk culture region
When many people who live in a land space share at least some of the same folk customs.
Folk life
the composite culture, both material and nonmaterial, that shapes the lives of folk societies
Gender
Social differences between men and women. rather than the anatomical, biological differences between the sexes. What is considered "feminine" or "masculine" vary over time and space
Gender Gap
a measurable difference between the behaviors of men and women
geographic region
a demarcated area of the Earth
Ghetto
During the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Hagerstrand, Torste
A famous geographer that wrote about cultural diffusion about the same time as Carl Sauer
Hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca; one of the Five Pillars of Islam
Hierarchical diffusion
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
Hinduism
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a
humanism
the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason
Independent inventions
the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
Infanticide
The act of killing an infant
Innovation Adoption
Study of how why and at what rate new technology spreads throughout a culture
Interfaith Boundaries
boundaries between the major religions
Islam
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. Islam is based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad.
Jainism
a religion founded in India in the 6th century BC, whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore should not be harmed
Judaism
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
Longevity Gap
the gap between the life expectancy of men and women
Marxism
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded
Material culture
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
Maternal Mortality Rate
annual number of deaths of women during childbirth per 1,000 women.
Migrant diffusion
spread of an idea through people, in which the phenomena weakens or dies out at its previous source ... moves like a "Slinky" (e.g., spread of the Spanish Flu toward the end of World War I).
Monotheistic religion
a religion with one god
Non-material culture
Human creations, such as values, norms, knowledge, systems of government, language, and so on, that are not embodied in physical objects
Norms
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
Plural Society
a society in which different cultural groups keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions
Polytheism
A religion which believes in multiple deities
Popular culture
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Proselytic Religion
Referred to as a Universalizing Religion, which is an attempt to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location. There are three religions that practice this they are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. To proselytize is to try to convert another person to your religion.
Protestants reformers
who protested some practices of the catholic church
Race
A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics.
Regional identity
an awareness of being a part of a group of people living in a culture region
Reincarnation
the successive attachment of the soul to some animate form according to merits earned in previous lives; believed that castes were based upon previous lives and that if you fulfilled your duties, you would move up in the next life
Religion
a system of beliefs and practices that a group of people uses to answer questions about life
Relocation diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
Roman Catholics
This branch of Christianity arose because of the Roman Empire's split by Diocletian.
Sacred Space
place where religious figures and congregations meet to perform religious ceremonies.
Secularism
The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking.
Segregation
separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Sequent occupance
the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
shamanism
an animistic religion of northern Asia having the belief that the mediation between the visible and the spirit worlds is effected by shamans
Sharia law
the legal framework within which public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Muslim principles.
Shiite
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
Shintoism
Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. Shintoism focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
Sikhism
the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
Social Distance
the extent to which people are willing to interact and establish relationships with members of racial and ethnic groups other than their own
stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Sunni
one of the two main branches of orthodox Islam
Survey System
pattern of land division used in an area
Symbolic landscape
smaller landscapes that symbolize a bigger area or category. iconic landscapes, i.e. the state capitol symbolizes WI. every landscape can symbolize something, but these are focal points for people's attention
Symbols
designs that stand for other things or ideas
Syncretism
the fusion of originally different inflected forms (resulting in a reduction in the use of inflections)
Theocracy
a political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)
Time-distance decay
The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source.
Traditional religion
a religion that has originality and is not modernized
Transculturation
cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact
Universalizing religion
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Zoroastrianism
Persian religion founded by Zoroaster; taught that humans had the freedom to choose between right and wrong, and that goodness would triumph in the end