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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1.Neurosurgeons have severed the corpus callosum in human patients in order to reduce
epileptic seizures.
2.A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a
3.The nineteenth-century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called
4.Professor Seif conducts research on the relationship between the limbic system and sexual motivation. Her research interests best represent the psychological speciality known as
biological psychology.
5.The ability to recognize faces with the right hemisphere but not with the left hemisphere best illustrates
6.Severing a cat's reticular formation from higher brain regions causes the cat to A) become violently aggressive
lapse into a coma.
7.Put the following terms in order, from smallest to largest.
genes, DNA, chromosomes
8.Addictive drug cravings are likely to be associated with reward centers in the
limbic system.
9.Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex?
10.The genome is the complete
set of genetic material in an organism's chromosomes.
11.The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain
12.Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of
natural selection.
13.Studies of identical twins who had been reared apart most clearly highlight the importance of ________ in personality development.
genetic predispositions
14.According to evolutionary psychologists, behaviors that promote reproductive success are likely to be
genetically predisposed.
15.The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of
16.Fraternal twins originate from the fertilization of
two egg cells by two sperm cells.
17.After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore's physical coordination skills and responsiveness to sensory stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately, however, he began to experience unusual difficulty figuring out how to find his way to various locations in his neighborhood. It is most likely that Mr. Santore suffered damage to his
association areas.
18.Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are
less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion.
19.Split-brain patients have had their ________ surgically cut.
corpus callosum
20.Which neural center in the limbic system plays a central role in emotions such as aggression and fear?
21.Women are most likely to be sexually attracted to men who seem A) shy and reserved.
mature and affluent.
22.Assessing the relative effects of nature and nurture on individual differences in personality would be of most direct interest to
behavior geneticists.
23.Heritability refers to the extent to which
trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations.
24.Which kind of researcher is most likely to examine chromosomal differences between a fraternal twin who experiences a learning disability and one who doesn't?
molecular geneticist
25.Your friend is taking her first psychology class. She comes to you saying, “I don't understand why we are studying the brain; I thought this was a psychology class.” Because of your background in psychology, your best response should be
“Everything psychological is simultaneously biological.”
26.The “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the
27.The association areas are located in the
cerebral cortex.
28.According to evolutionary psychologists, behaviors that promote reproductive success are likely to be
genetically predisposed.
29.A PET scan of a patient looking at a photograph of a painting would most likely indicate high levels of activity in which brain structure?
occipital lobes
30.Evolutionary psychologists emphasize that environmentally adaptive behaviors are those that have promoted
reproductive success.
31.The reproductive advantage enjoyed by organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as
natural selection.
32.Which of the following structures in the brainstem helps coordinate movements and lies above the medulla?
33.Which brain area is primarily involved with understanding and producing meaningful speech?
Wernicke's area
34.Physical exercise and exposure to stimulating environments are most likely to promote
35.The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________.
seeing; hearing
36.A brain lesion refers to ________ of brain tissue.
37.Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?
38.Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your
cerebral cortex.
39.Dendrites are branching extensions of
40.In creating more effective treatments for pain, researchers would use which of the following techniques for identifying regions of the brain that handle pain?
functional MRI (fMRI)
41.The sequence of brain regions from the evolutionarily oldest to newest is
brainstem; limbic system; cerebral cortex.
42.An axon is
the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.
43.The movement of positively charged ions across the membrane of a neuron can produce a(n)
action potential.
44.The neural system located at the border between the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres is known as the
limbic system.
45.The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and personality traits is known as
behavior genetics.
46.Resting potential is to action potential as ________ is to ________.
polarization; depolarization
47.With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which
dendrites transmit more electrical signals to axons.
48.n all-or-none response pattern is characteristic of the
initiation of neural impulses.
49.Sir Charles Sherrington observed that impulses took more time to travel a neural pathway than he might have anticipated. His observation provided evidence for the existence of
synaptic gaps.
50.Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that travel across the
synaptic gap.
51.Prozac, a drug commonly prescribed to treat depression, prevents the sending neuron from taking in excess serotonin. Which process does this drug prevent from taking place?
52.Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as
53.An undersupply of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter known as ________ is linked to seizures
54.Alzheimer's disease is most closely linked to the deterioration of neurons that produce
55.The master gland of the endocrine system is the
pituitary gland.
56.Motor neurons are an important part of the
peripheral nervous system.
57.The peripheral nervous system is to sensory neurons as the central nervous system is to
58.Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into
the bloodstream.
59.Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released by the
adrenal glands.
60.The tremors of Parkinson's disease result from the death of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter
61.A person with schizophrenia may have an overactive dopamine system. Drugs used to treat this disorder prevent the action of dopamine by keeping it from binding to its receptors. These drugs are
62.The body's speedy, electrochemical information system is called the
nervous system.