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14 Cards in this Set

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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Digestion


Allows your body to get the nutrients and energy it needs from the food you eat




Mouth


Mechanical digestion, salivary amylase starts protein breakdown




Esophagus


Peristalsis pushes food down tube




Stomach


Holds food while being mixed with enzymes to help with digestion




Small Intestine


most digestion occurs here, absorption of nutrients




Pancreas


Secretes digestive enzymes




Liver


Produces bile to help digest fat




Gall Bladder


Store bile




Large Intestine


Responsible for processing waste so that emptying the bowels is easy and convenient



ENZYMES

Salivary amylase


Starches and carbohydrates




Pepsin


Proteins




Pancreatic Amylase


Starches and Carbohydrates




Lipases


Fats




Proteases


Proteins




Catalysts




Facilitates or helps a reaction to occur more readily by reducing the energy required for the reaction to occur




Lock and Key model




Induced Fit model




Substrate




Active Sites

ENZYME (Lock and Key Model)

ENZYME (Induced Fit Model)

ATP

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Alveoli


Terminal air sacs that constitute the gas exchange surface of the lungs




Bronchi


Pair of breathing tubes that branch from the trachea into the lungs




Minute Volume


The volume of air breathed in one minute without conscious effort.


[tidal volume X (breaths/minute)]




Residual Volume


The volume of air remaining in lungs after maximum exhalation




Spirometer


An instrument for measuring the air entering and leaving the lungs




Tidal Volume


The volume of air breathed in and out without conscious effort




Vital Capacity


The total volume of air that can be exhaled after maximal inhalation

GAS EXCHANGE

Gas exchange is the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide (the respiratory gases) move in opposite directions across an organism's respiratory membranes, between the air or water of the external environment and the body fluids of the internal environment




The net diffusion of a substance occurs because of a difference in its concentration, or gradient




Within an animal's body, as oxygen is used up and carbon dioxide produced, the concentration gradient of the two gases provides the direction for their diffusion




As air or water nears the respiratory membrane, the oxygen concentration on the outside of the membrane is higher than on the internal side so oxygen diffuses inward




The concentration gradient for carbon dioxide is in the opposite direction, and so net diffusion of carbon dioxide keep sit diffusing out of the body

URINARY SYSTEM

URINARY SYSTEM

URINARY SYSTEM

URINARY SYSTEM

The tole of the kidneys is to maintain homeostasis by controlling the chemical composition of the blood. The kidneys do this by:




Removing waste products from the blood


Leaving nutrients such as proteins and glucose in the blood


Maintaining the acid-base balance


Regulating water electrolyte balance

URINALYSIS

A test that determines the content of the urine




Macroscopic Examination


Color and clarity




Chemical Analysis


pH, specific gravity, protein content, glucose content, ketone content




Microscopic Examination


Red blood cells, white blood cells, epithelial cells, crystals, bacteria