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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Charge of Atomic Particles
Electron: -1
Proton: +1
Neutron: 0
Atomic Number (3 details) = Z
-The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
-The number of protons defines an element (change in proton number makes a new element)
-Atomic Number = Number of Electrons in neutral atom
Mass Number = A
The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom (if not given, it equals the atomic mass)
Variations of atoms/elements with the same number of protons but different neutrons
Isotope Symbol and Symbolic Notation
Mass # over Atomic # -> Element

X-Mass #
Different # of Neutrons...
Different # of Protons...
Different # of Electrons...
... diff. # of neutrons - Isotope
... diff. # of protons - Element
... diff. # of electrons - Ion
The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element
-amu - Atomic Mass Unit
-based on C-12
-1 amu is 1/12 the mass of C-12
Atomic Mass
The weighted average mass of the isotopes of that element

75% Cl-35
25% Cl-37

(.75)(35)+(.25)(37)= 35.543 amu
The particles found in the nucleus of an atom, protons and neutrons
Radioactive (3 details)
-Nucleus which spontaneously decomposes forming a new nucleus and producing one or more particles
-An atom of one element changing into the atom of another element
-Atoms that are unstable become stable by losing energy in the form of radiation
Nuclear Equation
Equation that shows the radioactive decomposition of an element

Ex. C-14 -> N-14 + e-0
Alpha Radiation - 4/2He
-Helium nucleus
-2 protons and 2 neutrons
-Charge of +2
-Symbol α
-Deflected towards negatively charged plate
-Blocked by paper
Beta Radiation - 0/-1e
-Charge of -1
-Deflected towards a positively charged plate
-Blocked by foil
-Symbol β
Gamma Radiation
-No mass
-High energy photon
-No charge
-Blocked by concrete, lead and water
-Symbol γ
Nuclear Fission
Splitting of atoms into fragments, releases lots of energy, chain reaction occurs, produces radioactive waste and used to produce power in nuclear reactors
Nuclear Fusion
Combining of nuclei, releases lots of energy, not radioactive and takes place in the Sun
Time required for half of the original sample of radioactive nuclides to decay

Ex. 100 g of substance w/ 5 year half-life

0 days - 100 g left
5 days - 50 g left
10 days - 25 g left
15 days - 12.5 g left
John Dalton
1803, proposed Atomic Theory based on atoms of elements having different weights

6 main points:
-All matter has atoms
-Atoms can not be made or destroyed
-All atoms of same element are identical
-Diff. elements = Diff. atoms
-Chem. reactions occur when atoms are rearranged
-Compounds formed from atoms that make up elements
JJ Thomson
-1897, discovered the electron through electric discharge experiments
-Atom is sphere of positive matter
-1913, discovered isotope
Ernest Rutherford
-1911, theory of central positive nucleus surrounded by negative orbiting electrons
-Most of atom mass in nucleus
-"Gold foil experiment"
James Chadwick
-1932, discovered the neutron
Speed of Light Formula
Speed of light = Wvlngth * Freq
3*10^8 = lambda (y) * nu (v)