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44 Cards in this Set

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John Winthrop
First governor of MA. Believed that MA should be considered "city on a hill..." a model for the rest of the colonies.
Anne Hutchinson
Woman who believed in the concept of antinomialism. Strongly opposed by Puritan Separatists and banished after she claimed she was spoken to directly by God.
John Rolfe
Introduced tobacco to VA colony.
Sir William Berkeley
Governor of VA colony w/ friendly ties to local Indians. This angered backcountry settlers who were being attacked by the Indians, leading to Bacon's Rebellion.
Great Migration
The migration of Puritans to the "New World," the MA Bay Colony.
Holy Experiment
Term used to refer to Pennsylvania. This was considered William Penn's "Holy Experiment" because it was a safe haven for Quakers, an oppressed sect of Christianity. It was also Penn's way of seeing if a liberal government would function properly while attracting a diverse population of settlers.
Bacon's Rebellion
Revolt led by Nathaniel Bacon against MA governor Berkeley. Signaled the conflict between the upper and lower classes of settlers in the area.
Headright system
A person could recieve 50 acres of American land if he took an indentured servant across for free.
Proprietary colonies
Colonies governed as someone's private property, and issued to them by the government.
Act of Toleration
Law issued by Lord Baltimore Calvert of Maryland issuing toleration for all Christians. Jews and Atheists were NOT tolerated.
Dominion of New England
The government of MA was refusing to abide by the orders of the Crown, so King James II established the DNE. It put all of the New England colonies under one governor (Abros). Strengthened Anglican Church. Enforced Navigation Acts.
Fundamental Orders
The first real constitution in America, est. by Connecticut. Power in the hands of the people.
Halfway Covenant
Est. in MA to give non-converted Puritans halfway membership in the Church.
Mayflower Compact
Means of self-gov't est. by the Puritans before settling in the New World. Advocated separation of church and state, and the rule of the majority.
Roger Williams
A minister who believed that the Indians were being unfairly treated. He also believed that a person's ability to reason made churches and preachers unnecessary. These opinions got him kicked out of the MA Bay Colony, and he went on to found Rhode Island.
Puritans
Puritans believed that the Anglican Church should be "purified" of the Catholic Church. This led them to the New World.
Puritan separatists
Puritans who believed that they must completely separate from the Church of England and est. a non-monarchial church. The Pilgrims were separatists.
Non-separatists
Believed that they must stay within the Anglican Church in order to make good change. These non-separatists arrived in the second wave of Puritans coming to the MA Bay Colony.
New England Confederation
Est. by the NE colonies to protect themselves from the natives.
Quakers
The Quakers believed that believed that the power of God was within the soul of the individual. Forced to leave the MA Bay Colony, then sought refuge in PA.
Plantation system
More crop space was needed to grow tobacco, so this was established.
James Oglethorpe
Est. Georgia as a safe haven for debtors and former prisoners. Only colony with a purely financial reason for founding.
Mercantilism
The jobs of the colonies are to provide raw materials and a market of consumers for the mother country (England).
Lord Baltimore Calvert
Est. Maryland as a safe haven for oppressed Catholics. Maryland became tolerant of both Catholics and Protestants, though, and Catholics eventually became the minority.
Act Concerning Religion
Law issued in Maryland granting religious toleration.
Navigation Acts
Est. by King Charles II to keep Dutch ships out of English waters.

1. Trade could only be conducted on British ships.
2. All goods to EU had to pass through England first.
3. Duties on coastal trade.
King Philip's War
Battle b/w MA settlers and Wampanoag Indians. The Indians pillaged white towns and caused a great deal of damage to the economy. Indians believed the only way of protection was through arms. Indians defeated by whites with help of rival tribe, Indian population decreased sig.
Lord De la Warr
First governor of the VA colony. Advocated harsh discipline and work gangs to whip the colony into shape.
John Smith
Captain who had led the journey to the site of Jamestown, VA. Jamestown almost collapsed but Smith rescued it by enforcing discipline upon the colonists.
Charter of Liberties
Est. by William Penn, est. representative assembly with limited power of proprietor.
Pequot War
Connecticut Valley whites vs. Pequot Indians over trade/land. Almost entire Pequot tribe slaughtered/sold into slavery with the help of rival tribes.
Restoration Colonies
- Carolina
- NY
- NJ
- Pennsylvania

After the Stuart Restoration, Charles II rewarded his courtiers with American land.
Charter of Liberties
After there was civil unrest in the PA colony, William Penn issued the Charter of Liberties in order to create a representative assembly. It also allowed the "lower counties" to have their own separate assemblies.
Fundamental Constitution for Carolina
Est. by the Earl of Shaftesbury, who needed to correct the continuous unrest in England. Called for a reorganization of land and calmed social order.
Cotton Mather
Popularized innoculation in America. Believed that exposing people to the smallpox virus would make them naturally immune to it.
Stono Rebellion
Uprising of Black slaves ending in the deaths of several whites. The rebellion was crushed pretty quickly, and in order to escape punishment many slaves escaped.
Why was the Virginia colony founded?
Jamestown was originally founded from a desire to gain wealth and to a lesser extent to convert the natives to Christianity.
Why was the Massachusetts colony founded?
Separatists in England fled to Holland in 1608 and then decided to find refuge in America where they could create a home for themselves in the Massachusetts Colony.
Why was the Rhode Island colony founded?
Roger Williams was banished to England by the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his beliefs in separation of church and state and freedom of religion. He fled and lived with the Narragansett Indians and formed Providence in 1636.
Why was the Maryland colony founded?
Lord Baltimore was motivated both by the desire for profit and the desire to create a refuge for Roman Catholics who were still being persecuted in Protestant England.
Why was the Connecticut colony founded?
Individuals from the Massachusetts colony moved to what would become Connecticut because they were looking for more freedom and financial opportunities.
Why was the New Jersey colony founded?
In 1664, James, the Duke of York, received control of New Netherland. He granted land to two of his friends, Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, that would become New Jersey. The two advertised and promised settlers many benefits for colonizing including representative government and freedom of religion.
Why was the Georgia colony founded?
To serve as a place where debtors in prison could go to start anew and it served as a barrier against Spanish expansion from Florida.
Why was the Pennsylvania colony founded?
His goal was to create a colony that allowed for freedom of religion due to his desire to protect himself and fellow Quakers from persecution.