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58 Cards in this Set

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the process by which food is borken down into absorbable units

digestion
the uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or the lymph
absorption
the digestive tract. the principal organs are the stomach and intestines
Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract
chews and mixes food with saliva
mouth
directs food from mouth to esophagus
pharynx
secrete saliva (contains starch-digesting enzymes)
salivary glands
protects airway during swallowing
epiglottis
allows air to pass to and from lungs
trachea
passes food from the mouth to the stomach
esophagus
allow passage from mouth to esophagus and from esophagus to stomach; prevent backflow from stomach to esophagus and from esophagus to mouth
esophageal spincters
adds acid, enzymes, and fluid; churns, mixes, and grindsfood to a liquid mass
stomach
allows passage from stomach to small intestine; prevents backflow from small intestine
pyloric sphincter
manufactures bile salts, detergent-like substances, to help digest fats
liver
stores bile until needed
gallbladder
conducts bile from the gallbladder to the small intestine
bile duct
stores lymph cells
appendix
secretes enzymes that digest all energy-yeilding nutrients to smaller nutrient particles; cells of wall absorb nutrients into blood and lymph
small intestine
allows passage from small to large intestine; prevents backflow from large intestine
ileocecal valve (sphincter)
manufactures enzymes to digest all energy yielding nutrients and releases bicarbonate to neutralize acid chyme that enters the small intestine
pancreas
conducts pancreatic juice from the pancreas to the small intestine
pancreatic duct
reabsorbs water and minerals; passes waste (fiber, bacteria, and unabsorbed nutrients) along with water the rectum
large intestine (colon)
stores waste prior to elimination
rectum
holds rectum closed; opens to allow elimination
anus
a portion; with respect to food, the amount swallowed at one time
bolus
the semiliquid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
chyme
wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push its contents along
peristalsis
a periodic squeezing or partitioning of the intestine at intervals along its length by its intestine at intervals along its length by its circular muscles
segmentation
a backward flow
reflux
a compound that facilitates chemical reactions without itself being changed in the process
catalyst
the unit of measure expressing a substance's acidity or alkalinity
PH
proteins found in digestive juices that act on food substances, causing them to break down into simpler compounds
digestive enzymes
cells or groups if cells that secrete materials for special uses in the body
glands
exocrine glands that secrete saliva into the mouth
salivary glands
the secretion of the salivary glands
saliva
exocrine glands in the stomach wall that secrete gastric juice into the stomach
gastric glands
the digestive secretion of the gastric glands of he stomach
gastric juice
an acid composed of hydrogen and chloride atoms that is normally produced by the gastric glands
hydrochloric acid
a slippery substance secreted by cells of the GI lining that protects the cells from exposure to digestive juices.
mucus
the organ that manufactures bile
liver
an emulsifier that prepares fats and oils for digestion; an exocrine secretion made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine when needed
bile
the exocrine secretion of the pancreas, containing enzymes for the digestion of carbohydrate, fat, and protein as well as bicarbonate, a neutralizing agent
pancreatic juice
an alkaline compound with the formula HCO3 that is secreted from the pancreas as part of the pancreatic juice
bicarbonate
fingerlike projections from the folds of the small intestine
villi
tiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells
microvilli
tubular glands that lie between the intestinal villi and secrete intestinal juices into the small intestine
crypts
cells of the GI tract that secrete mucus
goblet cells
the large, primary artery that conducts blood from the heart to the body's smaller arteries
aorta
vessels that carry blood form the heart to the tissues
arteries
small vessels that branch form an artery.
capillaries
vessels that carry blood to the heart
veins
the vein that collects blood from the GI tract and conducts it to capillaries in the liver
hepatic portal vein
a loosely organized system of vessels and ducts that convey fluid toward the heart.
lymphatic system
a clear yellowish fluid that is similar to blood except that it contains no red blood cells or platelets.
lymph
the main lymphatic vessels that collect lymph and drains into the left subclavian vein
thoracic duct
the vein that provides passageway form the lymphatic system to the vascular system
subclavian vein
chemical messengers
hormones
a hormone secreted by cells in the stomach wall
gastrin
a hormone produced by cells in the duodenum wall
secretin