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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

GI Tract is a flexible muscular tube that

extends from the mouth to the anus.

5 taste sensations

1. sweet

2. salty

3. bitter

4. sour

5. umami

What's the difference between peristalsis and segmentation?


An enzyme is a protein that remains

unchanged after a chemical reaction because it's a catalyst.

3 ways for nutrients to be absorbed

1. simple diffusion

2. facilitated diffusion

3. active transport

Successiveportions of the intestinal tract are specialized to absorb different nutrients.

In the microvilli, and inthe membrane, are hundreds of different kinds of enzymes and “pumps,” whichrecognize and act on different nutrients

Water-soluble nutrients and the smaller products of fat digestion are

released directly into the bloodstream and guided directly to the liver. Larger fats are not because they are insoluble in blood which is mostly water.


clusters of larger fats and proteins that are released into the lymphatic system.

Heart to arteries to capillaries to veins to heart

Path blood takes in the body. Delivering nutrients and removing waste.

Hepatic Portal Vein

Different from other veins. It doesn't direct blood back to the heart but to the liver.

Conducts all absorbed nutrients to the liver, except large fats.

Which organ is the most metabolically active?

The liver. It must prepare nutrients for use by the body after absorption from the small intestine.

How many microbes in the GI Tract?

1. 100 trillion (bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoas, etc.)

2. 10 times more than cell in the body

3. Weigh 1 pound

4. not in stomach because of low pH of stomach

Fibers in LI

1. get digested by bacteria which creates water, gas and short fats to fuel the colon.

2. called prEbiotics

Normal stomach pH is


Regulation of pH in the stomach

1. food stimulates gastrin

2. gastrin stimulates production of HCL

3. HCL lowers the pH to 1.5

4. which stops the cells from producing gastrin

opening and closing of pyloric sphincter

1. muscles relax and allow chyme into the SI

2. the cells inside SI sense the acid from stomach and close.

3. this acid/chyme stimulates the release of secretin into the blood

4. secretin goes to the pancreas and causes it to release it's sodium bicarbonate rich juice which alkalizes the chyme

5. sensing the alkalization, the muscle relaxes again

Amount of enzymes in pancreatic secretion

changes proportionatelyin response to the amounts of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the diet.

They are inactive when released and then activated in the SI.

What happens when fat is present in the SI?

1. Fat stimulates cells to release CCK

2. CCK travels by blood to the gallbladder

3. CCK causes the GB to contract

4. thus releasing bile into the SI

5. bile emulsifies the fat