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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who is Wilhelm Wundt?
The father of psychology! Established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany.
Define Structuralism
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind
What method did Edward Titchener use with his team to develop the structure of structuralism?
Define Functionalism
A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Who was William James and what was his relation to Mary Whiton Calkins?
He was an outgoing psychology professor at Harvard University. He tutored Calkins alone because all the men dropped out of the course.
What did Mary Whiton Calkins do?
Through the tutoring of William James, she became the second woman to obtain a Ph.D. in psychology then went on to become the first woman president of the American Psychological Association (APA).
Who was Margaret Floy Washburn?
She became the first woman to obtain a Ph.D. in psychology and the second woman to be president of the American Psychological Association.
Who is Sigmund Freud?
The controversial ideas of this famed personality theorist and therapist have influenced humanity's self-understanding.
What did John B. Watson do?
Working with Rayner, Watson championed psychology as the science of behavior and demonstrated conditioned responses on a baby who became famous as "Little Albert."
Define Behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1), but not (2).
Define humanistic psychology.
Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
Define cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language.)
Who is B.F. Skinner?
A leading behaviorist, Skinner rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior.
Define Psychology
The science of behavior and mental processes.
What did Darwin do?
Darwin argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies.
Define the nature-nurture issue
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
Define natural selection
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Define levels of analysis
The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
Define the biopsychosocial approach
An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
What does the neuroscience approach focus on?
How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.
What does the evolutionary approach focus on?
How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes.
What does the behavior genetics approach focus on?
How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.
What does the psychodynamic approach focus on?
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts.
What does the behavioral approach focus on?
How we learn observable responses.
What does the cognitive approach focus on?
How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information.
What does the social-cultural approach focus on?
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
Define basic research
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
Define applied research
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
Define counseling psychology
A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
Define clinical psychology
A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
Define psychiatry
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders ; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.