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102 Cards in this Set

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Neurons transmit what kinds of impulses?

Electrical impulses

The myelination of nerve fibres allow for what?

Saltatory conduction

Neurons pump sodium and potassium ions across their membranes togenerate what?

A resting potential

Neurons receive information about the world from which kinds of cells?

Receptor cells

What kinds of cells do neurons send information to?

Effector cells such as muscles and glands

What are neurons?

Super specialized cells of the nervous system

________ receives information. The message begins here.

Dendrites

____ sends information. The message passes to the next thing

Axon

The electrical impulse is __________ down the neuron; a domino effect of channels open in a row to allow Na+ into the cell.

propagated

A section of a neuron that is not activated is at _______ potential.

Resting

A segment of a neuron that is activated is at ______ potential.

Action

Na+ channels open when they sense a nearby action potential, aka they are _______-_____.

Voltage-gated

A segment of a neuron opens its Na+ channels, Na+ rushes in, and that part of a cell goes from a negative resting potential to a positive action potential

Depolarization

A segment of a neuron at action potential shuts its Na+ gates but opens its K+ gates, K+ diffuses out of the cell, making that segment negative again

Repolarization

An active transport protein that pumps Na+ out and K+ in to maintain the resting potential

Sodium-Potassium Pump

The minimum potential needed to cause enough voltage-gated Na+ channels to open and cause an action potential at that segment of the neuron

Threshold potential

Many neurons wrap segments of their axons in an insulating lipid called ______.

Myelin

Uninsulated portions of an axon that are the only depolarized parts during a nerve impulse

Nodes of Ranvier

True or false: neurons are directly connected to one another.

False; neurons are separated from each other by a small space

The small space between two neurons

synapse

To get to the next neuron, the electrical impulse is converted into a ________ signal

Chemical

The chemical that diffuses across the synapse from the pre-synaptic to the post-synaptic neuron

Neurotransmitter

What is the first step of Synaptic transmission?

An action potential is propagated down the pre-synaptic neuron

What is the second step of synaptic transmission?

The action potential reaches the end of the axon of the pre-synaptic neuron

What is the third step of synaptic transmission?

Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open and Ca2+diffuses into the pre-synaptic axon terminal

What is the fourth step of synaptic transmission?

Ca2+ causes exocytosis of neurotransmitter into the synapse

What is the fifth step of synaptic transmission?

The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synapse and binds to neurotransmitter receptors on the post-synaptic dendrite. These receptors activate Na+ channels. Na+ rushes into the post-synaptic neuron

What is the sixth step of synaptic transmission?

If enough neurotransmitter causes enough receptors to open, enough Na+ will rush in to reach the threshold potential in the post-synaptic dendrite. An action potential will then be initiated and propagated along the post-synaptic neuron neurotransmitters

After binding to the receptors, what happens to the neurotransmitters?

They are broken down and reuptaken in the pre-synaptic neuron (or else the post-synaptic neuron would continue firing)

What is one very important example of a neurotransmitter?

Acetylcholine

What do neonicotinoid pesticides do?

Bind to acetylcholine receptors

Molecules produced by glands that go into the bloodstream and have wide-reaching consequences on many cells

Hormones

Homeostasis is maintained through what?

Negative feedback

Where is insulin produced?

In the B cells of the pancreas

Which hormones signals the liver to take glucose out of the blood and store it as glycogen?

Insulin

Where is glucagon produced?

In the a cells of the pancreas

Which hormone signals the liver to hydrolyze the glycogen into glucose, and release it into the blood?

Glucagon

What is diabetes?

Inability of insulin to take glucose out of the blood

What is Type I diabetes?

Type I is early onset, which is an auto-immune disorder where the immune system killed the B cells of the pancreas. You can't produce insulin. Treated with insulin shots

What is Type II Diabetes?

Adult onset. Decades of high blood sugar levels and high insulin has caused an insensitivity to insulin. You produce insulin but cells don't respond to it. Treated with diet and exercise.

What is the hormone produced by the thyroid gland that increases metabolic activity of all cells

Thyroxin

What is increased metabolic activity needed for?

To heat up or increase energy use after a meal

What is adipose tissue?

A group of cells that store fat

What is the hormone secreted by adipose tissue which goes to the hypothalamus of the brain to inhibit appetite?

Leptin

True or False: Leptin was able decrease obesity in patients that had leptin deficiencies.

True

Which hormone makes you sleepy and is produced in low light conditions?

Melatonin

Where is the hormone melatonin produced?

The pineal gland

Where is the hormone testosterone produced?

The testes

What are the 3 effects of testosterone?

Prenatal development of male genitalia, producing sperm in the testes, secondary sexual characteristics during puberty such as deeper voice

What is the function of the testes

Sperm production

What is the function of the Vas Deferens?

Tube to transport sperm (aka sperm duct)

What is the function of the seminal vesicle and prostate gland?

semen production

What is the function of the urethra

exit tube for semen and urine

Which hormones cause prenatal development of female genitalia and secondary sexual characteristics such as enlarged breasts during puberty?

Estrogen and progesterone

What is the function of the ovaries?

egg and hormone production

What is the function of the fallopian tube?

Site of fertilization, carries embryo to uterus

What is the function of the uterus?

Site of embryo implantation, baby develops here

What is the function of the cervix?

Birth canal

What is the endometrium?

The lining of the uterus

Where are FSH and LH produced?

The pituitary gland of the brain

Where are estrogen and progesterone produced?

the ovaries

The egg develops inside the ovary supported by a group of cells called the ________.

Follicle

Which hormone stimulates development of the egg and does positive feedback on estrogen?

FSH

Which hormone repairs the endometrium and does positive feedback on LH?

Estrogen

Which hormone causes ovulation and does positive feedback on progesterone?

LH

If levels of this hormone fall, menstruation occurs, and also it does negative feedback of LH and FSH to prevent another ovulation

progesterone

What does IVF stand for?

In vitro fertilization

What is IVF?

The fusion of a sperm cell and egg cell in a petri dish which is implanted for an artificial pregnancy

What is the first step of IVF?

Drugs are given to suspend normal production of menstrual hormones

What is the second step of IVF?

FSH and LH are given to cause super ovulation (release of multiple eggs)

What is the third step of IVF?

Multiple eggs are harvested and fused with sperm cells in a lab

What is the fourth step of IVF?

Multiple zygotes are nourished to grow into embryos

What is the fifth step of IVF?

Multiple embryos are implanted into surrogate mother

Who said that all life develops from the egg cell when it is influenced by semen?

William Harvey

What does ATP stand for?

Adenosine triphosphate

What is the main energy carrier in every cell?

ATP

Adenosine with phosphates is called what?

ADP

True or false: ADP is a low-energy molecule

true

What is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds to produce ATP?

Cell respiration

Breaking the carbon-carbon bonds in _______ molecules releases the energy to put a P on ADP

Organic

Which organelle is responsible for aerobic respiration?

Mitochondrion

Respiration always begins with what?

Glycolysis

Where does glycolysis occur?

In the cytoplasm

What is the conversion of pyruvate to a waste product to regenerate NAD+ for glycolysis?

Fermentation

What is the waste product of fermentation in animals?

Lactic acid or lactate

What is the waste product of fermentation in Yeast?

Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide

How can we measure cell respiration?

By the decrease in oxygen or the increase in carbon dioxide

What is a respirometer?

a device to measure cell respiration in an organism by measuring changes in oxygen or carbon dioxide levels

What is the first step of an experiment to measure cell respiration?

Place seeds in a test tube with a base to absorb any produced carbon dioxide out of the air. All changes in gas volume will be from a decrease in oxygen

What is the second step of an experiment to measure cell reparation?

Seal test tube with a rubber stopper

What is anaerobic respiration, essentially?

Glycolysis followed by fermentation

What is aerobic respiration, essentially?

Glycolysis followed by complete oxidation of pyruvate

What is the production of carbon compounds in cells using light energy?

Photosynthesis

Where does photosynthesis happen?

In the chloroplast

What is using light energy to split something?

Photolysis

What are the three products of photolysis?

Oxygen, high energy electrons, and H+

What is the evidence that ancient photosynthesis changed our atmospheric composition?

Oxidized minerals deposited in deep rock

True or false: visible light is between 400 and 700 nanometers

True

What is Earth's main photosynthetic pigment that absorbs red and blue light while reflecting green?

Chlorophyll

What is the absorption spectrum?

The spectrum of which wavelengths are absorbed well by a specific photosynthetic pigment

What is the total absorption percentage of light by a plant using all of its photosynthetic pigments?

Action spectrum

What is an environmental condition that can limit the rate of reaction?

A limiting factor