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17 Cards in this Set

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what is hazardous substance

any substance that is:


-explosive/ flammable


-corrosive


-toxic


-ecotoxic


-generate toxic substance when contacts with water or air

persistent organic pollutants (POP)

-Resistant to natural attenuation


-can be passed down from mother to child via breastfeeding

bioaccumulation

-accumulation of substance in organism by


1. respiration


2. food intake


3. skin contact etc.

Biomagnification

- bio accumulation of substance from food to predator on the food chain

PCB

- man made compound


-used in heat transfer fluids, immersion oil and sealants


- health effect s include rashes / acne


- liver, nervous system and immune system damage at high exposure

PCB properties

- resistant to acid and bases, compatible with organic materials


- resistant to redox rxn


- thermally stable


-non flammable

dioxins

-accumulate in fatty tissue


-highly toxic


- health issues such as cancers, birth defects, reproductive issues


- formed when organic material is burnt in presence of chlorine.


-destroyed by incineration

Acute toxicity

harmful effects through single or short term exposure

chronic toxicity

harmful effects over extended period

influence of salinity

as salinity increases the solubility of neutral organic compounds decreases.

waste management hierachy

Mutagen

increases the rate of mutation above natural background level

teratogen

chemical that causes structural and/or functional birth defects

carcinogen

- promotes cancer

Volatilization

substance changes from solid or lquid to gaseous state

partition coeeffcient(Kh)

-increases witth temp.


-reflection of energy associated with keeping compound in solution of aqueous system.

surfactants and cosolvents

- hydrophobic chain and hydrophylic head


- can solubulize hydrophobic molecules