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331 Cards in this Set

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v. [T] 1 to give, (syns.) to dispense, mete out:
The doctor administered medicine to the patient.
2 to manage, supervise:
She ~ed the committee meeting to make sure that everything worked smoothly.
administer
n. [C;U] a liquid passed through a needle or small opening:
My car's engine gets an ~ of gas when I step on the pedal.

Thesaurus:
a shot of s.t./ vaccination, immunization, inoculation
injection
v. 1 [I;T] to translate (usu. orally) from one language into another:
She ~s the French museum guide's words for American tourists.
2 [T] to decide on the meaning of s.t. that is not very clear:
I ~ your nod to mean that you agree with me.
3 [T] to show one's own artistic ideas and ability through painting, music, writing, etc.:
She is a violinist who ~s Bach brilliantly.

Thesaurus:
1 to explain to, decipher
2 to understand, read, construe frml. Ant. to misinterpret
interpret
v.frml. [T] -ated, -ating, -ates
to make less difficult (painful, etc.), (syn.) to relieve:
The medicine ~d the pain.
alleviate
v.frml. [I] -pired, -piring, -pires
to desire strongly, hope to do or to be:
He ~s to be a great actor someday.
aspire
v. [T] to slow the progress of s.t., (syn.) to impede:
Lack of modern equipment ~s efficient manufacturing.
hinder
adj. 1 not sure, uncertain:
I am ~; I think it might rain today.
2 unsure of oneself:
insecure, lacking confidence in oneself:
When I play golf, I am ~ of myself, because I can't hit the ball very well.
unsure
n. [U] 1 the importance of s.t.:
The end of the war was an event of great ~.
2 the meaning of s.t.:
I don't understand the ~ of your wearing black all the time; are you sad?

Thesaurus:
1 consequence
2 the point, implication
significance
n. 1 [C] a document or blank form for writing down information for a specific purpose, such as requesting a job or a loan:
I filled out an ~ for a job at the factory.
2 [C] a use in s.t.:
Mathematics has ~s in science.
3 [C;U] the act of putting s.t. on:
An ~ of paint improved the appearance of the house.

Thesaurus:
1 a request for (job, driver's license)
2 the relevance to (or) of, suitability of
3 spreading on, a treatment with (paint, face cream)
application
n. [C;U] frml. a finish of s.t., (syn.) a conclusion:
We achieved ~ on an agreement after months of talks.
closure
n. [C;U] when something has more than one possible meaning:
Legal documents must be free of ~.
ambiguity
n. -ses /siz/ special importance placed on s.t.:
She put great ~ on beginning work immediately.
emphasis
n. 1 the outside of s.t., surface:
The ~ of the house needs painting.
2 appearance, looks:
He has a rough ~, but inside, he has a heart of gold.
adj. outside:
The ~ walls of the building are made of glass and steel.
exterior
adv. 1 in a way that is successful and achieves what you want:
Teachers need to be able to communicate ideas ~.
2 used when you describe what the real result of a situation is:
His illness ~ ended his career.
effectively
v. [T] 1 to damage s.t., make s.t. no longer useful:
She spilled coffee on her white silk dress and ~ed it.
2 to spoil s.t., to take the fun or usefulness out of s.t., esp. an event:
His stupid behavior ~ed our party.
3 to destroy s.t., such as breaking, burning, or knocking s.t. down:
A fire ~ed everything inside the museum.
4 to cause s.o. to lose all of his or her money:
The stock market crash ~ed him, so he has no money.
n. 1 [C;U] a state of destruction, anything unusable because of damage:
After the fire, the museum lay in ~s.
2 broken parts of historical buildings that still exist after thousands of years:
We went to Greece to see the ~s of ancient temples.
ruin
v. [I] to belong or be related to s.t.:
These financial records ~ to this year's tax returns.
pertain
n. 1 a forceful contact:
The meteor made a large ~ when it crashed to earth.
2 effect, impression:
Poverty has a bad ~ on people's health.
v.infrml. [I;T] to affect:
Lack of food ~ed the starving nation.

Thesaurus:
1 a shock, jolt, collision
2 an influence
impact
v. [T] evoked, evoking, evokes to bring out a feeling, response, (syn.) to elicit:
The poetry ~d a feeling of love in the reader.
evoke
v. -trated, -trating, -trates
1 [I;T] to pass or cut a way into or through:
The child cried as the doctor's needle ~d his skin.||Searchlights ~d the darkness.
2 [T] to break or enter into with force: The army ~d the city's walls.
3 [T] to see into, understand, esp. s.t. difficult:
A spy ~d the secrets of the Defense Department.
4 [I;T] to spread through s.t., (syn.) to permeate:
The smell of frying fish ~d the hallway.
penetrate
adj. 1 having a political view toward keeping old and often proven ways of doing things:
In the USA, Republicans are the ~ party.
2 slow to change, cautious 3 not too much or too high:
She is ~ in her spending.||He made a ~ estimate of the costs.
4 not showy, restrained in manner and dress:
Tomiko is a banker who wears a ~ business suit to work.
n. a person who is a ~

Thesaurus:
2 conventional, old-fashioned, wary
3 careful, prudent, moderate
4 traditional, dark- colored. Ant. showy
conservative
n. -ses /siz/ special importance placed on s.t.:
She put great ~ on beginning work immediately.
emphasis
adj. 1 most important, absolutely necessary:
Water is ~ to life.
2 energetic, lively:
She has a ~ personality.
n.pl. ~s
important organs, such as the heart, lungs, and digestive system:
His ~s are in bad condition.
vital
adj. firm, dedicated:
a ~ supporter of the political party
v. [T] to stop or slow bleeding:
We ~ed the flow of blood with a shirt until we could get to the hospital.
staunch
n. -ies 1 the court system:
The ~ is a branch of government.
2 judges as a group
judiciary
adj. 1 based on legend, (syn.) mythical:
~ stories are passed down from parents to children.
2 famous, (syn.) renowned:
Great Olympic athletes have become ~.
legendary
v. [T] -saw /s/, -seen /sin/, -seeing, -sees
to have knowledge of future events, (syns.) to predict, foretell:
She ~(past) the troubles ahead and took steps to avoid them.
foresee
n. a reaction to s.t., esp. bad events: When he yelled at his boss, the repercussion was that he was fired.
repercussion
n.
Thesaurus:
assortment- a group of different types of something
miscellany
n. 1 [C] a measurement of s.t. in one direction:
The ~s of a room (package, building lot, etc.) are its length, width, and depth (or height).
2 [C;U] size:
a problem of great ~
dimension
n. [C;U] s.t. new made or improved with creativity:
Cellular telephones were an ~ in the 1990s, but now they are very common.
innovation
n. 1 a person who represents s.o. or s.t.:
She is a sales ~ for a large company.
2 a member of the US House of Representatives:
We will elect a new ~ in the next election.
adj. meaning, showing, or illustrating s.t.:
Many of Renoir's paintings are ~ of French Impressionism.

Thesaurus:
1 an agent, associate/ delegate
2 a congressman, congresswoman, legislator
-adj. typical, characteristic of s.o. or s.t. Ant. atypical
representative
v. [T] -dized, -dizing, -dizes
to give money to a person, group, or business that is not self-supporting:
The City Opera is ~d by individual and corporate donations.
subsidize
v. [T] 1 to give s.t. or do s.t., (syn.) to provide:
That store ~s good service to its customers.
2 to give in return as payment:
He ~ed thanks to God for his health and his family.
3 to put into another language, translate:
It is difficult to ~ poetry into another language.
4 to cause a change, make s.t. become true:
He was ~ed speechless when his sister told him she was having a baby.||She was ~ed helpless when she broke her leg.
5 frml. to give an opinion or decision:
The judge will ~ his decision tomorrow.
6 to draw s.t., to sketch:
I had an artist ~ a picture of my house to put in the paper since the house is for sale.
render
v. [T] to lead an attack or series of actions:
to ~ a campaign
spearhead
v.1 [T] to fill someone or something with a lot of a particular emotion or quality:
His work is ~d with a love for tradition.
2 [I,T] to put something into a liquid so that its taste goes into the liquid
infuse
adj. very strong in effect or large in amount:
They won by an ~ majority.
overwhelming
n. 1 [U] words or objects that support the truth of s.t., proof:
The lawyer presented the murder weapon as ~ in court.
2 present and easily seen:
There were reporters in ~ at the scene of the crime.
v.frml. [T] -denced, -dencing, -dences
to show, demonstrate:
The murder suspect ~d surprise upon seeing the weapon in court.

Thesaurus:
1 support, confirmation/facts, data
-v. to display, express
evidence
adj. completely in agreement:
Everyone on the committee agreed in a ~ decision.
unanimous
adj. related to predicting the future, esp. by inspiration of God:
She made a ~ prediction that a woman would soon become President.
prophetic
adj. not able to be felt with touch, sight, or hearing, but still sensed:
My grandmother, who died last year, is an ~ presence in my life.
intangible
adj. necessary, essential:
Warm clothing is ~ in cold weather.
indispensable
v. [T] -nesses
1 to see, observe an incident:
He ~ed the auto accident and wrote a report.
2 to sign a document as a witness:
They asked me to ~ their contract.
n. 1 a person who saw s.t. and can tell about it, (syn.) an observer:
I was a ~ to the accident.
2 a person who attests or certifies that s.t. is real or genuine:
I signed as a ~ to the authenticity of the will.
witness
adj. done on purpose, (syn.) deliberate:
Meeting for dinner at a vegetarian restaurant was ~; I am a vegetarian.
-adv. ~ly
intentional
adj. 1 without stopping, (syn.) persistent:
The sound of the rain was ~ for hours on the roof.
-adv. ~ly
2 trying very hard to succeed, esp. to hurt s.o., (syn.) pitiless:
The politician suffered ~ criticism from the press after she was elected.
relentless
adj. appearing obvious or true, but maybe not so:
His~ reaction was happiness, but I think the smile hid tears.
-adv. ~ly
seeming
adv. in that order, (syn.) consecutively: He likes coffee and tea, black and with cream, respectively.
respectively
v. [T] evoked, evoking, evokes
to bring out a feeling, response, (syn.) to elicit:
The poetry ~d a feeling of love in the reader.
evoke
v. [T] -tated, -tating, -tates
to help, (syn.) to expedite:
The tourist office sent us a guide who ~d our travel through Japan.
facilitate
v. [T] 1 to include:
My history course ~es the 19th and 20th centuries.
2 frml. to encircle, surround:
The wall ~es the entire college campus.
encompass
v. [T] 1 to hold firmly, take hold of:
I ~ed the door handle with both hands and pulled hard.
2 to succeed in understanding s.t. often complex:
After reading the text again, I finally ~ed the main points of the story.
n. 1 a firm hold on s.t.:
I got a ~ on the stuck faucet and forced it open.
2 understanding, comprehension:
She has a good ~ of the facts in the situation.||This problem is beyond her ~.

Thesaurus:
-v.1 to seize, grab, grip s.t. Ant. to let loose
2 to comprehend, catch on to s.t./get it infrml. Ant. to not nderstand
-n.1 a grip, handhold. Ant. a slip
2. knowledge, mastery. Ant. ignorance
1
grasp
adj. 1 with many complex details, (syn.) intricate:
That mystery novel is very ~; I can't explain the plot in five minutes.
2 with s.o. romantically:
Are you two ~? I thought you were just friends!
3 participating in:
He was ~ in a car accident in which the other driver was drunk.
involved
adj. related to personal feeling and opinion, rather than facts:
He must be ~ about the difficult girl; she's his daughter and he loves her.
subjective
adj. 1 not influenced by emotions or personal beliefs, fair, (syn.) impartial:
The economist gave an ~ report of the economy's problems.
2 existing outside the mind, real:
People, buildings, and streets are part of ~ reality, not imagined.
n. a goal, purpose:
Our ~ in doing market research is to develop useful new products.
objective
adj. necessary, essential:
Warm clothing is ~ in cold weather.
indispensable
adj. hard-working, (syns.) persevering, dedicated:
He raised his grades by being a very ~ student.
diligent
adj. unacceptable, not meeting standards:
We received an ~ offer for the property, so we didn't sell it.

Thesaurus:
unsuitable, inappropriate
unsatisfactory
v. [I] to belong or be related to s.t.:
These financial records ~ ~ this year's tax returns.
pertain to
1 [T] s.o. or s.t.:
to affect the quality or reputation of:
Students who do well on exams ~ well ~ thir teachers.
2 [I] s.t.:
to think deeply about, (syn.) to ponder:
An old man ~ed ~ what he had done in his lifetime.
reflect on
v. [I] to do something secretly with another person or group, in order to deceive or cheat others:
The company ~ with competitors to fix prices.
collude
v.frml. [T] -gated, -gating, -gates
to move s.t. to a lower position, throw away, (syns.) to dismiss, discard:
After his old car broke down five times, he ~d it to the junkyard.
relegate
v.frml. [T] -plated, -plating, -plates
1 to think about s.t. seriously:
The manager ~d the results of the report for hours.
2 to look forward to, (syn.) to anticipate:
She ~s a good future in business after her graduation from college.
contemplate
v. [T] -lized, -lizing, -lizes
to use, to bring into use:
We ~d an old building to store our business files.
utilize
v. [T] -dated, -dating, -dates
to make s.o. fearful or timid by showing power or making threats:
An older boy ~d the little children when he took their lunch money.
intimidate
adj. strong, difficult to defeat, (syn.) daunting:
The people of that country must overcome ~ obstacles to win their freedom.
formidable
adj. extreme, terrible:
He is having ~ difficulty with his health.
horrendous
adj. 1 hilly, referring to land that is difficult to travel over:
The Rocky Mountains have ~ mountains and roads.
2 strong, healthy, (syn.) vigorous:
Football players must be ~.
rugged
adj. hard-working, (syns.) persevering, dedicated:
He raised his grades by being a very ~ student.
diligent
n. a charge of crime or wrongdoing, (syn.) an indictment:
The judge read ~s of theft to the criminal.
accusation
v. [T] -nized, -nizing, -nizes
1 to recall, remember s.o. or s.t. when one sees or hears that person or thing:
I ~d an old friend in a crowd and waved to her.
2 in a formal meeting, to give s.o. a chance to speak:
The chairwoman ~d me and I told the committee my opinion.

Thesaurus:
1 to notice s.o., spot s.o. infrml., identify s.o.
2 to acknowledge s.o.
recognize
n [C] when you are likely to have a medical problem or to behave in a particular way:
People with a ~ to heart disease
predisposition
n. 1 [U] an indication of participation or involvement of others, esp. in a crime:
The woman's ~ of her brother sent him to jail.
2 [C] an indirect suggestion:
John made ~s that Mr. Lu had faked his wife's signature.
implication
n. 1 [C;U] a state of stress, nervousness:
The ~ in a hospital emergency room can be very high.
2 tautness, rigidity:
The ~ in steel bridge cables is measured after they are installed.
tension
n. 1 [C] a copy, a duplication, esp. a fake copy:
She bought an ~ of a famous painting.
2 [C;U] copying of s.o.'s behavior:
My friend does a funny ~ of me.
imitation
adj. 1 limited to people with a lot of money and high social position, (syns.) restricted, prestigious:
an ~ club||an ~ neighborhood
2 belonging to one person, company, or contract:
Our company has the ~ rights to distribute that product.
3 ~ of:
not including or considering
n.fig. a sole right:
We have an ~ on that product; no one else can sell it.
exclusive
adj. obvious, clear:
He's very unhappy, and it is ~ that he wants to leave now.

Thesaurus:
evident, noticeable. Ant. unclear
apparent
n. 1 [C] a solution to a problem, result of an action:
Diplomats tried to find a ~ to the problems between their countries.
2 [U] the quality of believing s.t. strongly and not changing one's mind:
Everyone admired his ~ when he quit smoking and never touched another cigarette.
resolution
adj. related to storytelling, in the form of a story:
a ~ tale
n. a story, a description of events:
The police asked her for a ~ of her activities the day of the murder.
narrative
n. [C;U] -ties faithfulness, devotion, (syn.) allegiance:
The ~ of dogs to their owners is well-known.

Thesaurus:
trustworthiness, reliability, fidelity frml.
loyalty
n. 1 [U] great admiration:
The child looked up at his father with ~.
2 [U] respect for s.t. as sacred, holy, worthy to be worshiped:
Religious people have ~ for their church.
reverence
n. [U] 1 dedication, loyalty:
The soldier won praise for his ~ to duty.
2 loving attention:
She is full of ~ to her family.
devotion
adj. 1 related to ideas, feelings, etc. (not concrete things):
"Beauty" and "truth" are ~ ideas.
2 unclear, vague:
He has ~ ideas about what to do, but no specific thoughts.
abstract
adj. having a lot of influence:
an ~ figure in modern jazz
influential
adj. 1 based on legend, (syn.) mythical:
~ stories are passed down from parents to children.
2 famous, (syn.) renowned:
Great Olympic athletes have become ~.
legendary
adj. 1 used to say that you have read or been told something although you are not certain it is true:
~ it's going to rain today.
2 used to say that something seems to be true, although it is not certain:
There were two ~ unrelated deaths.
apparently
adj. necessarily
There was an accident on the way. ~, the bus was late.
inevitably
n.sing. [U] an amount, degree:
Inflation has slowed to a great (small, certain, etc.) ~.
extent
n. [U] courage in the face of difficulties:
He showed ~ in his battle against cancer.
fortitude
n. [U] 1 the size or importance of s.t.:
The economy is slowing down, but economists don't know the ~ of this change yet.
2 (in science) the degree of brightness of a star or force of an earthquake:
The ~ of the earthquake in California was 5.0 on the Richter scale.
magnitude
n. 1 [U] the central point (issue, idea, etc.) of a subject, its substance:
The ~ of the matter is that the two people really love each other.
2 [C;U] a pure substance made by crushing or boiling s.t., (syns.) a concentrate, an extract:
The liquid from crushed rose petals is the ~ we use.
essence
v. [T] 1 to hold firmly, take hold of:
I ~ed the door handle with both hands and pulled hard.
2 to succeed in understanding s.t. often complex:
After reading the text again, I finally ~ed the main points of the story.
grasp
adj. vaguer, vaguest unclear, (syn.) inexplicit:
He has some ~ ideas about what to do, but nothing specific.
vague
n. [C;U] s.t. that prevents flow or movement, (syn.) an obstruction:
That man had a ~ in a blood vessel and almost had a heart attack.
blockage
n. 1 a low barrier:
Runners jump over ~s.
2 an obstacle, (syn.) hindrance:
In starting a new company, many ~s must be crossed.
v. [T] -dled, -dling, -dles to jump over a ~ or other barrier:
The runner ~d the fence.
hurdle
v. [T] 1 to defeat s.o. by greater power:
Police ~ed the criminal and took him away.
2 to be too strong for one's feelings or senses, make one feel helpless:
The smell of the garbage ~ed me.
overpower
v. [T] 1 to keep s.t., maintain possession of s.t.:
The wife ~ed most of her dead husband's property, but some went to the children.
2 to pay a professional for services:
When his neighbor drove a car into his house, he ~ed a lawyer.
retain
v. [T] -dued, -duing, -dues
1 to beat, (syn.) to conquer:
The army ~d the enemy.
2 to make calmer or quieter:
He ~d the screaming baby with soft music.
subdue
adj. extremely important, (syns.) critical, decisive:
It is of ~ importance that we sign that contract for our future success.
crucial
adj. 1 related to diplomacy:
a ~ service (mission, channel, corps, etc.)
2 showing skill at handling people sensitively:
She gave a ~ response to a hostile question and brought calm to the situation.
diplomatic
v. [T] -peded, -peding, -pedes
to get in the way of, slow down:
A large ship in the port ~d the movement of many smaller boats.
impede
v. [T] to slow the progress of s.t., (syn.) to impede:
Lack of modern equipment ~s efficient manufacturing.
hinder
v. -ated, -ating, -ates
1 [I;T] to describe or show differences:
The speaker ~d between a partnership and a corporation as types of business ownership.
2 [I;T] to see, or (syn.) to discern, differences:
These two plans seem the same; I can't ~ between them.
3 [T] to make (develop, manufacture, etc.) differences:
We have ~d our product from the competition by its higher quality.
differentiate
v. -es
1 [I;T] to see or understand differences, (syn.) to discriminate:
That child cannot ~ between right and wrong!
2 [T] to show as different, set apart:
What ~es our company from our competitors is our excellent record of customer satisfaction.
3 [T] to distinguish oneself:
to gain notice, honor, or respect:
He ~ed himself as a leading writer of books.
distinguish
v. [T] -ied, -ying, -ies
to express, symbolize:
The Statue of Liberty ~ies the hope of a better life for all.
embody
v. [T] 1 to include:
My history course ~es the 19th and 20th centuries.
2 frml. to encircle, surround:
The wall ~es the entire college campus.
encompass
v. [T] -rated, -rating, -rates
1 to put in public office with a ceremony:
The governor was ~d two months after her election.
2 to open, begin with a ceremony:
A jazz band ~d the festivities with a lively song.
inaugurate
v. -densed, -densing, -denses
1 [T] to shorten:
The writer ~d his letter from six pages to two pages.
2 [T] to make thicker, esp. by removing water
3 [I;T] to form liquid from a gas:
Moisture ~d (out of the air) on the window.
condense
v.frml. [T] -ated, -ating, -ates
to make less difficult (painful, etc.), (syn.) to relieve:
The medicine ~d the pain.
alleviate
v. [T] 1 to show that s.t. is of little or no truth or value:
Scientists have ~ed many popular beliefs, like the belief the world was flat.
2 to cause a loss of trust or belief (in s.o.):
After the scandal, the Minister was <adj.> ~ed and he then resigned from the government.
discredit
n. [U] continuous effort and dedication, esp. to one's work, (syn.) perseverance:
She works with ~ because she loves her work.
diligence
v. [T] -aged, -aging, -ages
to speak of (s.o. or s.t.) as having little value or importance, (syn.) to belittle:
He called his opponent a fool and ~d his abilities.
disparage
adj. different from others, special:
Spices give that dish its ~ flavor.
distinctive
adj. to the detriment of sth:
a ~ effect
detrimental
adj.frml. outstanding, most famous:
She is the ~ soprano in the opera today.
preeminent
n. a sign or symbol for decoration or for a purpose:
Her shirt has the company ~ on it.
-adj. ~atic.
emblem
v. [T] -mersed, -mersing, -merses 1 to put s.t. in water until it's covered:
The cook ~d the potatoes in boiling water.
2 to become absorbed in, (syn.) to delve into:
Students ~ themselves in their studies.
immerse
to do violence (destruction, punishment, etc.):
The hurricane ~ed ~ on the coastal area.
weak havoc
v. [T] to criticize or attack s.o. again and again, (syn.) to badger:
She ~ed me for days about the mistake I made.
harass
v. [T] -lated, -lating, -lates
1 to handle, change the position of s.t.:
A worker ~s the levers of the bulldozer.||A musician ~d the strings of a guitar.
2 to influence s.o. or s.t. secretly, esp. for one's own advantage:
He ~d the price of a stock so he could buy it cheaply.
manipulate
v.frml. -posed, -posing, -poses
1 [T] to make more likely to suffer from, (syn.) to make vulnerable:
Her family history may ~ her to heart disease.
2 [I;T] to incline s.o. in advance to do s.t. or to have a particular attitude:
She is ~d to taking a vacation in Mexico, not Canada.
predispose
adj. allowing too much freedom, esp. in matters of pleasure that could lead to harm, (syn.) indulgent:
~ parents||a ~ society
permissive
v. 1 [I;T] to tell s.o. what he or she says isn't true, (syn.) to dispute:
They ~ each other all the time:when he says, "It's white," she says, "It's black."
2 [T] to be different, (syn.) to disagree:
The police report about the crime ~s what a witness says about it.
-adj. ~ory
contradict
adj. 1 related to drama:
He has written ~ works for the stage.
2 related to a high emotional point:
a ~ scene in a play
3 making a big impression, (syn.) striking:
She wore an amazing dress for a ~ entrance into the theater.
dramatic
adj. 1 not sure, uncertain:
I am ~; I think it might rain today.
2 ~ of oneself: insecure, lacking confidence in oneself: When I play golf, I am ~ of myself, because I can't hit the ball very well.
unsure
adj. accepting of different beliefs and behavior:
The boy's parents are ~ of his naughty behavior.
tolerant
adj. related to literature and writing:
~ magazines have few readers compared to news magazines.
literary
n. [U] 1 terrible and complete ruin:
A hurricane causes great ~ to buildings and trees.
2 the act of pulling or breaking down:
The ~ of the old building will take two weeks.

Thesaurus:
1 devastation, desolation, havoc
2 demolition|downfall(of people). Ant. construction
destruction
v. [T] to start, put into action:
The meat company ~ed a new advertising plan for low-fat beef.
n. a tool or piece of equipment:
With the right ~s, I can unlock a door without a key.
implement
v. [T] -sured, -suring, -sures
to make sure:
He ~d that all the doors were locked before he left his apartment.||Your passport ~s your entry into your home country.

Thesaurus:
to make certain, assure oneself|guarantee s.t. is s.o. Ant. to leave s.t. in doubt
ensure
v. [T] -bled, -bling, -bles
to make possible for, (syn.) to empower:
Their earnings ~d them to retire early.
enable
n. a characteristic, quality of a person or thing:
He is a handsome man with many other good ~s.
v. [T] -uted, -uting
to credit, be the reason for:
I ~ his success to his talent and hard work.
attribute
n. [C;U] sin or crime, including illegal drugs and prostitution:
There is a lot of ~ in big cities.
vice
n. 1 a body movement to show s.t. (a feeling, an idea, etc.):
She made a ~ to the right with her hand to show the direction of the park.
2 s.t. you do or say to show your feelings:
We gave some money to the hospital as a ~ of support.
v. [I] -tured, -turing, -tures
to make a movement with your hand or head to show s.t.:
He ~d to me to sit down.
gesture
n. the effect, result, (syn.) the consequence:
The ~ of the election will be known today.
outcome
n.sing. the beginning of s.t., such as an illness:
The ~ of the disease began in October.
onset
n. 1 a marker, such as a stone that indicates the distance in miles:
Many years ago, the main road between Boston and New York had ~s next to it.
2 fig. an important achievement, event:
Getting her college degree was a ~ in her life.
milestone
adj. 1 continuing steadily in a belief, activity, or purpose, (syn.) tenacious:
He made a ~ effort to finish the big project.
2 continuing to exist for a long time:
a ~ problem||a ~ noise
persistent
v. [T] to try to do s.t., strive for:
He ~ed to pass the examination and succeeded.
n. an effort, endeavor:
She made an ~ to telephone, but no one was home.

Thesaurus:
-v. to try, undertake, endeavor frml.
-n. a try, an undertaking
attempt
v. [T] -lated, -lating, -lates
1 to handle, change the position of s.t.:
A worker ~s the levers of the bulldozer.||A musician manipulated the strings of a guitar.
2 to influence s.o. or s.t. secretly, esp. for one's own advantage:
He ~d the price of a stock so he could buy it cheaply.
manipulate
v. [T] -tated, -tating, -tates
1 to help s.o. or s.t. become better:
A hospital worker ~d a man who had a broken leg so he could walk again.
2 to fix up, put in good condition again, (syn.) to restore:
The city ~d old empty buildings to make new housing.
rehabilitate
v. [T] -ated, -ating, -ates (in law)
to put in jail, (syn.) to imprison:
They ~d the woman, but many people believed that she was innocent.
incarcerate
n. [C;U] 1 a falling into ruin, (syn.) a caving in:
Heavy rainfall caused the ~ of the roof.
2 a loss of strength:
She worked so hard that she suffered a ~.
v. [I] -lapsed, -lapsing, -lapses
1 to fall into ruin:
The stock market ~d, and many people lost a lot of money.
2 to lose strength and fall down:
The runner ~d at the finish line.
3 to fold up s.t. so it needs less space:
to ~ an umbrella.

Thesaurus:
-v.1 to fall, cave in
2 to drop, fall, break down. Ant. to strengthen
collapse
n.
improvisation
n. when someone intervenes, especially to prevent something from happening:
Without medical ~, the child would have died.
intervention
n.
~ of air space
encroachment
n. beginning, start:
The day-care center has been a success since its ~.
inception
n. a very unkind remark about s.o.:
It was an ~ to tell your brother that he's stupid.
v. [T] to do or say bad, unkind things to s.o.:
You ~ed me by saying I have ugly clothes.

Tjesaurus:
-n. a slur,slight, slap in the face fig.|rudeness, slander. Ant. a compliment
-v. to be rude to, hurt s.o.'s feelings, offend s.o. Ant. to be kind to s.o.
insult
v. [T] -ized, -izing, -izes
to make widely known, accepted among many people:
The USA ~d the wearing of jeans around the world.
popularize
n. the sharp point of a pin
v. [T]1 to locate exactly:
She ~ed her street on the map.
2 to determine the exact nature or cause of:
Let's see if we can ~ the problem here.
pinpoint
v. [T] to reveal or uncover often in a formal way:
The mayor pulled back the curtain and ~ed a statue of the local hero.
unveil
adj. 1 helpful, causing s.t. to happen:
Her good grades were ~ in getting her a scholarship to Harvard.
2 of or for musical instruments, not voices:
Mozart wrote ~ music as well as operas.
instrumental
n [C;U] a new idea or method that is being tried for the first time, or the use of such ideas or methods:
the latest ~s in education
innovative
adj. 1 able to float:
Fallen trees are ~ in water.
2 fig. cheerful, happy:
She has a ~ personality.
buoyant
adj. the study of ancient cultures by looking for and examining their buildings, tools, and other objects:
He is on an ~ dig in egypt.
archaeological
n. [U] 1 written works, such as novels, poems, and plays, and commentary about them:
She is a professor of French ~.
2 written information about a specific field:
The current ~ on medicine is highly technical.
literature
n. 1 an explanation:
His book gives a ~ of how a house is built.
2 a report:
You can hear a ~ of the ball game on the radio.

Thesaurus:
1. an account, depiction frml.|sketch
2. a narrative
description
adj. related to industry (esp. manufacturing):
~ production is up this year, but agriculture is weak.
industrial
n. a person who makes pottery:
The ~ shaped the clay into a bowl.
potter
adj. of or relating to a time before history was recorded through pictures or writing:
Dinosaurs lived in ~ times.
prehistoric
n. a craftsman, one skilled in a trade, such as bricklaying, painting houses, etc.:
The man is an ~ in a woodworking shop.
artisan
adv. separately and not as a group:
He apologized to each person ~.
individually
v. [I;T] -strated, -strating, -strates
1 to show (how s.t. works, its advantages, etc.):
I'll ~ for you how our new computer works.
2 to march in protest:
Students ~d in the streets outside the Capitol.

Thesaurus:
1. to describe, illustrate|prove
2. to protest publicly
demonstrate
adj. worthy of attention, noticeable, (syns.) extraordinary, outstanding:
The sick man was near death but made ~ improvement and got well.
remarkable
[T] 1 to make beautiful, to decorate:
She ~ed the dinner table with flowers.
2 fig. to enliven, (syn.) to ornament:
Many interesting people ~ed the party.
adorn
n. 1 a tube that carries fluid:
the blood ~s
2 a container, such as a cup:
a ~ used in religious services
3 a ship:
Cargo ~s sail the Atlantic.
vessel
n.adj. 1 a type of fine-grained ma-terial from the ground that can be shaped when wet, and will hold the shape when dried or baked:
She likes to make dishes out of <n.> ~.
2 to have feet of ~:
to have bad characteristics while seeming to be perfect:
That politician seemed so fine, yet his personal life was a mess; he has feet of ~.
clay
adv. without exception or change:
~, her advice is excellent; we always do what she says.
invariably
n. [U] the greatest, without holding back:
She tries her ~ to do a good job.
utmost
v. traded, trading, trades
1 [I;T] to exchange:
I ~d a computer for a bicycle.
2 [I;T] to transact:
Brokers ~ on stock (commodity, currency, etc.) exchanges.
3 [I;T] to engage in business:
She ~s in farm equipment.
trade
adj. much, a lot:
That family owns a ~ amount of land.
considerable
n. [C;U] 1 amount of space between two points:
What is the ~ between the earth and the moon (or) the ~ from the earth to the moon?||The ~ between Boston and New York is 250 miles (400 km.).
2 sing. an unfriendly relation, (syn.) an aloofness:
There is a ~ now between those two friends.
v. [T] -tanced, -tancing, -tances
to put or keep at a distance:
After he became rich, he ~d himself from old friends.
distance
n. -cies 1 [C;U] the degree of thickness, softness, etc., of s.t.:
The ~ of a steak is firm and thick.
2 [U] the condition of doing things in the same way:
The ~ of the teacher's making the students work hard helps them learn a lot.
consistency
adj. extremely important, (syns.) critical, decisive:
It is of ~ importance that we sign that contract for our future success.
crucial
adj. careful and thorough, painstaking:
She is ~ in spelling every word correctly in her papers.
meticulous
n. [C;U] 1 the visual pattern and degree of smoothness or roughness of touch produced by a material, such as the placement of fibers in fabric:
Wool flannel has a smooth, soft ~.
2 fig. the pattern and feel (of a painting, daily life, etc.):
The ~ of life in Buenos Aires is one of charm and sophistication.
texture
v. [T] to press with the fingers and hands:
A baker ~s flour and milk together to make bread dough.
knead
v. [T] -moved, -moving, -moves
1 to move or take s.t. away:
You should ~ all furniture from the room before you clean the carpet.
2 to get rid of s.t. as in cleaning:
We ~d the dirt from the floor with soap and water.
3 to make s.o. leave a job or office:
She was ~d from her job at the post office because she was stealing stamps.
remove
n. a small ball of gas, esp. air, found in or on top of a liquid:
~s in soft drinks don't last long.
bubble
v. [T] 1 to form into a shape:
She ~ed the clay into a pot with her hands.
2 to develop one's character:
Her personality was ~ed by her strict parents.
mold
v.[I;T] to break without coming apart:
A small stone hit the window and ~ed it.

Thesaurus:
to split
crack
n. 1 [C;U] one's emotional nature, often of anger:
He has a bad ~ and is easily angered.
2 [C] mood or characteristics:
the ~ of the times
3 [U] the strength of metal
temper
n. 1 [U] anything one can touch:
This face cream is a white, sticky ~.||Tires are made of rubber and other ~s.
2 usu. sing. [C;U] meaning, truth:
What she says has ~ because of her knowledge and experience.
3 [U] wealth, possessions:
The family owns a successful business; they are people of ~.

Thesaurus:
1. material, matter, stuff infrml
2. significance
3. means, resources
substance
v. -duced, -ducing, -duces
1 [I;T] to make s.o. or s.t. smaller in size or weight:
He ~d his weight by 20 pounds by eating less and exercising.
2 [I;T] to lessen in severity, importance, etc.:
She stopped smoking cigarettes and ~d her risk of getting lung cancer.
3 [T] to make s.o. poor and unhappy:
The hurricane ~d many people to living without food or housing for days.
4 [T] to put a fraction in an equal and simplest form:
You can reduce the fraction4/8 to 1/2.

Thesaurus:
1 to decrease, lower, slash. Ant. to increase
2 to cut, diminish. Ant. to increase
reduce
n. a lessening of s.t.'s size:
~ in a skirt||shrinkage in employment
shrinkage
v. [I;T] to break without coming apart:
A small stone hit the window and ~ed it.

Thesaurus:
to split
crack
adj. long-wearing, sturdy:
The soles on those shoes have lasted a year; they are quite ~.
durable
n. 1 the outside of s.t., surface:
The ~ of the house needs painting.
2 appearance, looks:
He has a rough ~, but inside, he has a heart of gold.
adj. outside:
The ~ walls of the building are made of glass and steel.
exterior
n. 1 [C] an answer to a problem, a way of solving it:
The police found the ~ to the mystery.
2 [C;U] a mixture of a solid and a liquid, in which the solid dissolves (one can no longer see the solid):
a ~ of salt and water

Thesaurus:
1 an explanation of s.t., a key to s.t.
2 a blend, mix
solution
n. 1 a small piece of s.t.:
a ~ of paper
2 a small person:
That ~ of a boy can't lift the heavy box.
3 a piece of women's underclothes that looks like a dress or skirt:
a silk ~ under her dress
4 a small mistake:
a ~ in arithmetic
5 a mistake in speaking:
a ~ of the tongue
6 a movement or fall caused by s.t. slippery:
a ~ on a banana peel
7 a space to keep a boat:
a ~ for my sailboat in the harbor
slip
adv. 1 cheerfully, merrily, sprightly:
The sun is shining ~.
2 cheerfully, actively:
smile ~.
brightly
n. 1 a tube that carries fluid:
the blood ~s
2 a container, such as a cup:
a ~ used in religious services
3 a ship:
Cargo ~s sail the Atlantic.
vessel
v. glazed, glazing, glazes
1 [T] to cover or fit with glass:
We ~d the windows with new glass.
2 [T] to put a thin (usu. shiny) cover over s.t.:
I ~d the donut with sugar.||After making the ceramic plate, he ~d it to protect it.
n. a thin, shiny cover on s.t. (ceramics, food, etc.)
glaze
adj. 1 bright, light, sunny, luminous:
a ~ table
2 lustrous, glossy, polished, sleek:
his ~ trousers
shiny
adj. 1 outside, exterior:
The ~ surface of the airplane is very smooth and shiny.
2 coming from the outside:
Children's experiences in school are affected by many ~ influences.
external
n. [C;U] 1 the visual pattern and degree of smoothness or roughness of touch produced by a material, such as the placement of fibers in fabric:
Wool flannel has a smooth, soft ~.
2 fig. the pattern and feel (of a painting, daily life, etc.):
The ~ of life in Buenos Aires is one of charm and sophistication.
texture
v.frml. [T] 1 to make beautiful, to decorate:
She ~ed the dinner table with flowers.
2 fig. to enliven, (syn.) to ornament:
Many interesting people ~ed the party.
adorn
adv. in every way or as much as possible:
He ~ denied it.
I still didn't ~ trust him.
completely
n. 1 a tube that carries fluid:
the blood ~s
2 a container, such as a cup:
a ~ used in religious services
3 a ship:
Cargo ~s sail the Atlantic.
vessel
adv. into equal amounts, or in a regular way:
They decided to divide the prize money ~ between them.
evenly
n. a special oven used esp. for baking clay objects (pots, vases, etc.):
She put the pot in the ~ for two hours.
kiln
v. -solved, -solving, -solves
1 [I;T] to put s.t., like sugar or powder, into a liquid and make it seem to disappear:
The powder ~d in water.
2 [T] to end (an association, group, or contract):
to ~ a marriage (a formal meeting, business, etc.)
3 [I] fig. to break down emotionally:
She ~d into tears at the news.
dissolve
n. [U] the chemical element found in coal, graphite, and diamonds:
The black lead in pencils is made of soft ~.
carbon
n. 1 s.t. made by combining two or more parts or elements:
Water is a chemical ~ made from hydrogen and oxygen.
2 an area with a fence around it:
The soldiers live inside a military ~.
adj. made up of two or more parts:
The ~ word "bookstore" is formed from the words "book" and "store."
compound
n. 1 a line of separation in a material, a split:
That drinking glass has a ~ in it.|| a wall with ~s
2 a small amount of space:
He opened the window a ~.
3 a break in a surface, fissure:
After the earthquake, the ground had wide ~s running through it.
4 a sudden, very loud noise:
the ~ of a whip
5 a funny and/or critical remark
6 slang a strong, highly addictive form of cocaine:
He smokes ~.

Thesaurus:
1 a break, fracture
2 a little, a bit
3 a split, fracture
4 a snap, bang, pop
5 a joke, comment
crack
adv. at the beginning:
The situation was worse than they ~ thought.
initially
n. [U] the ability to function (work, run, swim, etc.) properly over a long period of time, (syn.) stamina:
Olympic athletes have great ~.
endurance
adj. 1 capable of being changed and used for s.t. else:
The movie producers think that book is ~ because it's full of adventures; it should make a good movie.
2 capable of handling changes, flexible:
The child is very ~; she will be happy in her new house and school.
adaptable
adj. 1 belonging to, for the purpose of:
This payment is ~ to my rent.
2 having meaning, significance:
His earlier comments were not ~ to our later discussion.
applicable
n. 1 an unwanted drip or rush of liquid or gas:
The boat has a ~ and is filling up with water.
2 a letting out of secret information:
A ~ from inside the government spread the news of the President's decision.
v. 1 [I;T] to let in or out a drip or rush of liquid or gas:
The kitchen sink ~s water onto the floor.
2 [T] to reveal information secretly:
An official inside the government ~ed a story to journalists.

Thesaurus:
n.1 a leakage, seepage|hole, crack
2 a disclosure(news, facts)|revelation
leak
n. a way of doing s.t.:
That business uses trucks as its ~ of moving goods.

Thesaurus:
a means(of doing s.t.), manner, technique|process, system, procedure
method
v. 1 [I;T] to draw sketches or plans for:
They've ~ed a new airplane.
2 [I;T] to form mental plans for:
We must ~ a better advertising campaign.
3 [T] to intend for a certain goal or purpose:
a movie ~ed to appeal to teenagers

Thesaurus:
1 to create, draw up
2 to conceive, devise, plan
3 to create, fashion
design
v. carved, carving, carves
1 [I;T] to cut (meat, vegetables) into pieces:
She ~d the turkey at the table.
2 [T] to shape s.t. by cutting it with artistry and exactness, sculpt:
She ~s jewelry out of precious stones.
3 [T] to cut designs, letters, etc., into the surface of s.t.:
He ~d his name on the tree.

Thesaurus:
1 to slice, cut up
2 to fashion
3 to engrave
carve
v. [T] 1 to describe fully, with all the fine points:
The letter ~ed the company's requirements for a new product.
2 to choose s.o. to do a job, esp. in the military:
They have ~ed a squad of soldiers to guard the prisoner.

Thesaurus:
1 to go over, spell out, enumerate
2 to assign
detail
v. 1 [I;T] to apply paint:
She ~ed her room pale green.
2 [I;T] to create a picture or work of art:
She ~s portraits for a living.
paint
n.pl. 1 a type of grain eaten by animals and people:
My mother baked bread made with ~ and raisins.
oats
n. [U] a cereal plant or grain usu. ground into flour and used to make bread, cake, pasta, etc.:
~ is a major food source, grown throughout the world for 7,000 years.
wheat
adj. 1 unusual, remarkable:
The results of the test were ~.
2 great, terrific, wonderful, amazing:
That singer's new recording is a ~ success.
phenomenal
n. a sudden rush, increase:
Our company had an ~ in sales this month.
upsurge
adj. covering a large area, (syn.) ubiquitous:
The forest fires were ~ through the mountains.
widespread
n. [C;U] 1 (in law) taking legal responsibility for parenting:
The process of ~ can be lengthy.
adoption
adj. reducing the amount of work necessary to do a job:
Washing machines and computers are ~ devices.
labor-saving
n. [U] machines as a group:
~ in that textile mill is used to make fabric.

Thesaurus:
equipment, apparatus, gear
machinery
v. [I;T] to cut down and collect, (syn.) to harvest:
In the fall, farmers ~ their crops.
reap
n. 1 a single seed of a plant (wheat, corn, oats, etc.)
2 [U] the grasses from plants which produce such seeds, esp. wheat and corn:
Europe imports a lot of ~ from Russia every year.
3 a very small, hard piece of s.t.:
Grains of sand form a beach.
4 a small amount of s.t.:
There is not a ~ of truth in what he says.
5 the natural flow of a surface:
You can feel the ~ of the wood (leather, grass, etc.) by its smoothness.

Thesaurus:
3/4 a granule, particle, speck. Ant. a chunk, hunk
grain
n. 1 a geographical area of a country:
The northeast ~ of the USA includes New York and the six New England states.
2 part of the atmosphere:
Space vehicles enter the upper ~s of the atmosphere as they return from outer space.
3 an area of the body:
He has a pain in his abdominal ~.

Thesaurus:
1 a part, section
2 a section, zone
region
v. [I;T] -es
to beat grain stalks to separate grain:
Farmers thresh grain with ~ing machines.
thresh
n.sing. the beginning of s.t., such as an illness:
The ~ of the disease began in October.
onset
n. -li
s.t. that causes an action or response:
The desire for a good education was the ~ ~ my studying hard.
stimulus for
n. [U] useful items needed for a purpose (work, sports, etc.):
I have sports ~ that includes golf clubs, tennis rackets, and ice skates.

Thesaurus:
gear|machines, tools
equipment
adv. close to a particular number or time although not exactly that number or time:
The college has ~ 700 students.
approximately
n. a stem of a plant:
a bean ~
stalk
adv. more and more:
~ important
~, education is seen as a right, not a privilege.
increasingly
n. 1 a big machine on wheels used to harvest crops:
A farmer ran his ~ over the wheat field.
2 a group of people or businesses
combine
adj. slow moving, awkward, dull:
Bureaucracies move in a ~ way.||He wrote a long, ~ paper on a subject of no interest.
ponderous
adj. happening at the same time:
The final trumpet music was ~ with loud noise from the drums.
simultaneous
n. 1 a planting and harvest of grain, vegetables, or fruit:
Farmers had a good ~ of rice this year.
2 fig.a group of things or people:
Our school had a good ~ of freshman students this fall.
3 a short haircut
4 a short whip used in riding horses

Thesaurus:
1 yield
2 collection, assembly
crop
v. [T] 1 to provide paid work to people:
That company ~s 1,000 workers.
2 to use:
The company ~s computers to keep track of expenses.

Thesaurus:
1 to hire, put s.o. on the payroll|engage the services of s.o. frml. Ants. to fire, dismiss, let go| lay off
2 to make use of, utilize
employ
v. [T] to gather crops:
We ~ corn in the early autumn.
n. the gathering of crops:
This year's ~ was a very good one; we picked hundreds of oranges.

Thesaurus:
-v to pick, collect, reap
-n a crop, yield, output
harvest
adj. easy to see or understand, clear:
It is ~ that that woman has had too much to drink.

Thesaurus:
plain, self-evident, unmistakable
obvious
adj. 1 worthwhile, valuable:
They own a ~ piece of property by the sea.
2 attractive, appealing:
She is a beautiful and intelligent woman; any man would think she is ~.

Thesaurus:
1 worth having|in demand, sought after
2 alluring
desirable
v.frml. to take advantage of, use:
While working in Paris, I ~ed ~ ~ the opportunity to visit the museums.
to avail oneself of
v. [I;T] -es
to beat grain stalks to separate grain:
Farmers ~ grain with threshing machines.
thresh
adj. difficult, complex:
He took ~ courses in mathematics.
advance
adj. -ier, -iest
1 having a lot of weight:
The rock is very ~.
2 fat, overweight:
He eats too much and has become ~.
3 infrml. dealing with a serious topic:
We had a ~ discussion about our relationship.
4 of a large amount:
He's a ~smoker and drinker.||There is always ~ traffic in the morning in my town.
heavy
adj. very fast, quick:
His ~ speech is difficult to understand.

Thesaurus:
swift, speedy. Ant. slow
rapid
n. 1 the head of a school:
Ms. Wu is the ~ of our local high school.
2 any person who can make important decisions in a business:
The ~s include the owner and his wife.
3 the amount remaining on a debt:
The ~ remaining on the mortgage is $20,000 at 7% interest.
4 money invested:
He can live on the interest from his savings and never touch the ~.
adj. main, most important:
The ~ reason they visited was to make an offer to buy your business.

Thesaurus:
-adj. biggest, primary
principal
adj. related to a city:
Many people move to ~ areas to have the excitement of city life.

Thesaurus:
metropolitan, municipal
urban
n. 1 [C] a building of any kind:
A new ~ is being built on the corner.
2 [C] any architectural object of any kind:
The Eiffel Tower is a famous Parisian ~.
3 [U] the way parts are put together or organized:
the ~ of a song||a business's ~
structure
n. [U] 1 land in its natural state, esp. a large area unspoiled by humans:
~ is protected in many of our national parks.
2 fig. a large, unknown place:
We are still exploring the ~ of outer space.
wilderness
adj. 1 related to colonies (nations governed by other nations):
~ America was controlled mainly by the Spanish, French, and British.
2 in the style, esp. of buildings, common during the time that people lived in colonies in America:
They live in a four-bedroom ~ house.
colonial
adv. mainly or most of the time:
She reads ~ romantic novels.
mostly
n. a low area of land between hills and mountains:
Farmers plant crops in ~s.
valley
adv. especially, greatly:
She is ~ interested in modern art.
particularly
n. an advantage, an important person, thing, or quality:
She is very talented and is a real ~ to our company.
asset
n. [U] useful items needed for a purpose (work, sports, etc.):
I have sports ~ that includes golf clubs, tennis rackets, and ice skates.

Thesaurus:
gear|machines, tools
equipment
n.pl. articles necessary for daily living, such as food, clothes, and everyday things:
The market for ~ ~ is huge, but so is the competition.
consumer goods
n.[U] the selling of products relating to films, television programs, and famous people
merchandising
n. 1 [U] the creation or founding of s.t.:
The ~ of a new business takes many years.
2 [C] a place of business:
He runs a clothing ~ in Boston.
establishment
adv. in agreement with what is already known or expected, therefore, (syn.) consequently:
~, now that you have completed your classes, the school will give you a diploma.
accordingly
n. a small, new town or area where a group of people has decided to live:
Many large Midwestern cities started as ~s in the 1800s.
settlement
before, earlier than s.t. else:
~ ~ becoming a lawyer, she worked as a legal secretary.
prior to
n. -ishes
a showy movement:
The conductor ended the symphony with a great ~ of her baton.
v. -ishes
1 [I] to become rich, grow strong:
People have ~ed in America for centuries.||Many plants ~ in warm, humid climates.
2 [T] to wave s.t. in a showy way:
The soldier ~ed his sword.
flourish
adj. strongly disagreeing with someone or something
antagonistic
adj. capable of being used by boats:
A ~ river is deep and wide enough for boats to pass through it.
navigable
n. wharves or wharfs
a long platform built over the water, where ships can pull up to load or unload:
Boats sailed up to the ~, and the passengers got off.

Thesaurus:
a pier, dock, quay
wharf
n. a large farm, usu. in a warm climate, on which is grown a single major crop, such as tea, coffee, cotton, rubber, etc.:
There were many cotton ~s in the southern USA.
plantation
n. a person who lives in a certain area:
The ~s of San Francisco enjoy a view of the Golden Gate Bridge.
inhabitant
v. 1 [T] to make a written record of s.t.:
The scanner ~ed the $10 purchase and printed a receipt.
2 [T] to register s.t. officially:
After he bought the house, he ~ed his ownership at City Hall.
3 [I;T] to make a sound or video recording of s.t., as on disk or tape:
The concert we went to was ~ed for showing on TV.

Thesaurus:
1 to tabulate
2 to file, document
3 to tape, videotape
record
n. [C;U] an analysis of similarities and differences between things, ideas, people, etc.:
The student made a ~ between what people do at Christmastime in her country and what people do in the USA.
comparison
v. [T] to provide written evidence:
The police ~ed their case with accounts of the accident by people who saw it.
document
v. [T] to draw interest:
San Francisco ~s millions of tourists each year.

Thesaurus:
to charm, enchant(people)|appeal, interest(things). Ant. to disgust| repel.
attract
v. [T] 1 to provide paid work to people:
That company ~s 1,000 workers.
2 to use:
The company ~s computers to keep track of expenses.

Thesaurus:
1 to hire, put s.o. on the payroll|engage the services of s.o. frml.Ants. to fire, dismiss, let go| lay off
2 to make use of, utilize
employ
v. [T] 1 to teach:
The Spanish professor ~s her students in the language and culture of Mexico.
2 to direct, tell s.o. what to do:
My sister ~ed me to take out the garbage.

Thesaurus:
1 to educate, tutor|train, coach
2 to order, command, bid s.o. to do s.t. frml/Ant. to ask
instruct
v. [T] 1 to show, give a picture or symbol of s.t.:
The Statue of Liberty ~s the freedom immigrants wanted to find in America.
2 to equal to, mean:
The damage from the fire ~ed a total loss for the store owner.
3 to act in the place of, act on behalf of:
The US Embassy ~s the United States in other countries.
4 to act like or say that you belong to a group:
He ~s himself to others as a rich man, but he is not.
5 to be an example of:
This plant ~s a rare kind of orchid.

Thesaurus:
1 to symbolize, stand for s.t., exemplify
2 to be
3 to speak for
4 to pose as, portray oneself as
represent
n. [U] 1 a job paying a salary or wages:
He is out of work and looking for ~.
2 frml. use:
The ~ of force will lead to greater violence.

Thesaurus:
a job, work|occupation, business, profession| trade, field. Ant. unemployment
employment
adj. 1 having the right to do or be chosen for s.t., qualified:
He graduated from high school with good grades, so he is ~ to enroll in the state college.
2 not married and with good qualities for marriage:
He is unmarried and has a good job, so he is an ~ bachelor.
eligible
adj. related to the sea:
~ laws govern international shipping.
maritime
adj. singular, one of a kind:
Each person in the world has a ~ personality.
unique
adj. 1 with high-class tastes and understanding:
My cousins are very ~, since they have lived in Paris and Rome.
2 intricate, complex:
~ computer equipment

Thesaurus:
1 worldly, experienced. Ant. naive
2 advanced
sophisticated
v. [T] to achieve, reach:
The salesperson ~ed her sales goal for the month.
attain
n. [U] the sport of killing game (animals, birds):
~ is a popular sport in many areas.
hunting
adj. plentiful, (syn.) profuse:
Food is in ~ supply in this country.
abundant
v. -vided, -viding, -vides
1 [T] to supply, furnish s.t.:
Parents ~ their children with food, clothing, and shelter.
2 [I] to care for s.o.:
They ~ for their child.
3 [I] to prepare for a present or future need:
She ~s for her future by saving money each month.
4 [T] to require, esp. in a contract or by law:
That lease ~s that the rent must be paid on the first of the month.
provide
n. [C;U] any of the basic metallic elements, usu. hard, shiny substances that can be melted, shaped, and cut to make things:
Steel is a ~ that is used a lot in building and manufacturing.
adj. made of ~:
Ships are made of ~ plates welded together.
metal
n. any of a variety of shellfish, some of which are edible:
~s are found on the sea rocks on the shores of America and Europe.
mussel
n. 1 [C;U] the hard, protective outer covering of an animal, seed, or plant:
a turtle's ~||the ~ of a walnut
2 [C] a bullet or other piece of ammunition:
~s from a gun
3 [C] the outer structure of s.t.:
Workers removed the interior walls and floors of a building and left the ~ standing.
4 [C] the edible holder for a filling:
a pie ~
shell
n. a warm-blooded animal, the female of which feeds its own milk to its young:
~s range from whales at sea to mice and humans on land.
mammal
adj. 1 sensible, not acting foolishly:
They wanted to buy a white couch, but with three small children, it just wasn't ~.
2 useful, handy:
That dictionary would be a ~ gift for the student.
3 relating to actual practice or real situations rather than to theory:
She felt that most of what she learned in the course was of no ~ use.

Thesaurus:
1 realistic,pragmatic, down-to-earth. Ants. impractical, silly
2 appropriate, serviceable. Ant. frivolous
3 concrete, applicable. Ant. abstract
practical
adj. situated on or relating to the coast:
a ~ town/resort
~ waters
coastal
n. [C;U] 1 a giving of money, one's time, etc., donation:
That rich man makes big ~s to charity.
2 positive or helpful participation:
She made an important ~ to the company's success.

Thesaurus:
1 a gift, payment
2 (to play) a role/part, (to have) a say, (to have) input/ involvement in s.t.
contribution
n. [C] 1 a plant which grows, produces seed, and dies within one year
2 a book produced every year containing new information about the same subject
adj. 1 happening or produced once a year:
an ~ meeting/report
2 measured over a period of one year:
~ rainfall
annually
n. a tool or implement, esp. for eating food:
~s for eating include knives, forks, and spoons.
utensil
v. [T] 1 to move:
Trucks ~ most of our goods to our customers.
2 to move emotionally:
Beautiful music ~s listeners into a pleasant dream world.
n. [U] transportation:
~ in some countries is slow and unsafe.
transport
n. [C;U] 1 a thick soup, usu. a mixture of meat and vegetables:
beef ~
2 infrml. a state of worry:
She is in a ~ about going to the huge university.
v. 1 [I;T] to cook for a long time to soften and thicken food
2 fig. [I] to worry:
He ~s over big decisions.
stew
n. [U] 1 a type of deer
2 fish eggs:
Salmon swim upstream to lay their ~ each year.
roe
n. 1 the process of growing old:
His ~ does not permit him to work anymore.
2 the process of growing mature or ripe:
Wine growers put wine in a cellar for ~.
aging
adj. capable of being understood, (syns.) clear, intelligible:
Her writing is quite ~.
comprehensible
adj. 1 producing good results, useful:
We had a ~ meeting that solved some problems.
2 producing profits:
Buying that house was a ~ investment for him.
productive
adj. done on purpose, (syn.) deliberate:
Meeting for dinner at a vegetarian restaurant was ~; I am a vegetarian.
intentional
adj. 1 relating to a specific person, idea, item, etc.:
I like classical music in general, but not that ~ composer.
2 special, unusual:
There is nothing of ~ interest on TV tonight.
3 very exact and demanding about what one wants:
He is very ~ about the food he eats; everything has to be cooked just right.

Thesaurus:
1 exact, precise, specific
2 marked, notable
3 fussy, picky
particular
v. [T] achieved, achieving, achieves
to reach, gain (success, happiness, one's goals, etc.):
The movie star ~d success and wealth.||He has ~d his goals in life by having a good job and raising a family.

Thesaurus:
to acquire, attain, accomplish. Ant. to fail
achieve
v. [T] -fied, -fying, -fies
1 to change s.t., alter:
He was loud and angry, and his friends told him to ~ his behavior.
2 (in grammar) to describe s.t.:
An adjective such as "blue" ~ies a noun, such as "dress."
modify
v. [T] 1 to ask for very strongly:
They ~ payment today.
2 to require, have a strong need for:
This problem ~s immediate attention.

Thesaurus:
1 to insist on, order, command
2 to necessitate, call for s.t.
demand
v. spread, spreading, spreads
1 [T] to cover a surface by pushing s.t. toward the edges of the surface:
to ~ butter on bread
2 [I;T] to cause to go or travel a distance or to many people:
to ~ the news||to spread disease
3 [T] to lay out smoothly and flat:
to ~ a tablecloth (napkin, towel, map, etc.)
4 [T] to make space between:
to ~ your fingers
5 [T] to set a table with dishes, knives, forks, etc.
spread
adj. successful in business, flourishing:
That family grew ~ as its business grew.
prosperous
adj. 1 basic, primary: Honesty is a fundamental principle in dealing with others. 2 essential, necessary:
Food, shelter, and clothing are ~ needs.

Thesaurus:
1 primary, elementary. Ant. secondary
2 indispensable, crucial. Ant. unnecessary
fundamental
v. -uted, -uting, -utes
1 [I;T] to give (money, one's time, etc.):
She ~s money to her church.
2 [I] to participate positively in s.t.:
Everyone on the team ~d to winning the game.

Thesaurus:
1 to donate
2 to add, be a factor. Ant. to subtract
contribute
adj. different from others, special:
Spices give that dish its ~ flavor.
distinctive
n. a trip, esp. a long one
v. [I] to take a long trip:
Many Irish immigrants ~ed to America by sea in the 1840s.

Thesaurus:
-n. a voyage, expedition
-v. to travel, voyage, trek
journey
adj. of or relating to a time before history was recorded through pictures or writing:
Dinosaurs lived in ~ times.
prehistoric
n. a type of extinct hairy elephant:
~s once lived in parts of the USA.
adj. huge in size:
The national debt is ~.
mammoth
n. [U] a black, sticky mass made of decomposed organic matter:
~ is used to cover roads and roofs.
v. [T] tarred, tarring, tars
1 to cover with tar:
Workers ~red the roof to waterproof it.
2 to ~ and feather:
a. to cover with ~ and feathers as punishment:
In colonial times, criminals were ~red and feathered and sent out of town.
b. fig. to persecute, punish
tar
adv. in the past, some time ago, (syn.) previously:
She was ~ president of that organization.
formerly
n. [U] a black coal-based substance used for covering roads or roofs:
Our driveway is made of ~.
v. [T] to coat with this substance:
The new road was ~ed.
asphalt
n. [U] a dark, thick, oily liquid usu. found between layers of rock in the earth and used to make fuels for heating, lighting, or engines:
Gasoline is made from ~.
petroleum
n. 1 the remains of ancient animal or plant life preserved in rock:
We know about dinosaurs from the ~s that they left behind.
2 fig.pej. an old person with oldfashioned ideas:
He's the ~ in the English department that nobody listens to; he hasn't had a new idea since 1963.
fossil
adj. having a spine:
~ animals
n. an animal with a spine:
The ~s include lions and elephants.
vertebrate
n.adj. an animal without a backbone:
Ants are <n.pl.> ~s or <adj.> ~ insects.
invertebrate
adj. snarled, knotted up:
Traffic is all ~ up at the bridge.
tangled
n. 1 [U] laziness, lack of ambition:
The rich young woman won't work; she prefers to live in ~.
2 [C] a slow-moving animal that lives in trees in Central and South America
sloth
v. [I;T] -ated, -ating, -ates
1 to remove the earth from an area:
The workers ~d the earth to make a foundation for the building.
2 to uncover by digging:
Archeologists ~d ancient ruins in Egypt.
excavate
v. [T] 1 to hide s.t.:
The thief ~ed a pistol under his coat.
2 to keep s.t. secret, esp. to trick s.o.:
The owners of the company ~ed last year's finan-cial losses from the new buyer.
conceal
v. [I;T] 1 to rot:
Fallen leaves and trees ~ into the ground over time.
2 to fall into ruin or poor condition:
The Roman Empire slowly ~ed and lost its power.

Thesaurus:
1 to decompose, break down, disintegrate
2 to collapse, crumble, decline
decay
n. an animal that eats only plants:
Cows and horses are ~s.
herbivore
n. -tes or -te
a kind of wolf similar to a medium-sized dog found mainly in western North and Central America:
~s often hunt rats and mice at night.
coyote
n. 1 [U] a group of animal or plant cells that together makes up an organ that performs a certain function, such as nerve tissue or muscle tissue:
Human liver ~ can grow again if it is injured.
2 [C] paper products, such as toilet tissue or paper handkerchiefs:
After I sneezed, I wiped my nose with a ~.
tissue
v. [T] -nated, -nating, -nates
to fertilize, make pregnant:
The male cat ~d the female, and she had five kittens.
impregnate
adj. past tense & past part. of feed
1 provided with food:
You can see from his big stomach that he is well ~.
2 ~ up: annoyed or angry about a bad situation that has existed for a long time, (syns.) frustrated, disgusted: I am completely ~ up with all of the false promises and delays.
fed
n. a freshwater game fish related to but smaller than the salmon:
~ have a nutty, sweet taste when cooked properly.
trout
v. [T] -ated, -ating, -ates
1 to allow, put up with s.t.:
She cannot ~ anyone who does not act as she does.
2 to endure, suffer:
I cannot ~ hot, spicy foods.
3 to accept, receive:
Most people in that country will ~ people from other nations as neighbors.
tolerate
n.pl. simple tiny plants that live in water:
The green covering on top of the water in that pond is ~.
algae
adj. located in a higher area or region:
His ~ body hurts in the neck and chest.
n. the ~ part of s.t.:
The ~ of his shoe (part above the sole) has come loose from the sole.
upper