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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
if you are given a PROSPECTIVE study, you should narrow your options down to what two choices?

Cohort (prospective obviously)
if you see "pts were randomly assigned to a group" you know that **** is....
absolutely RCCT
if you see "we reviewed the medical records" or in the previous three years what should you be thinking
if you see prevalence, what can you narrow it down to?
ecological and cross-sectional
if you see 'matched controls' what should you be thinking
if you are calculating an Odds ratio for case control what is your equation
if you are calculating an Odds ratio for cohort what is your equation
errors associated with cohort?
recall (for retrospective)

can only use common diseases
cohort is used to study what?
rare risk
error associated with RCCT
external validity problem (hard to generalize to larger population)
why are RCCT most rigorous
minimze bias

errors with cross-sectional
late-look bias (this is the one to know)

cross-sectional outcome?
prevalence (one point in time)
why are cross-sectional studies better than ecological?
looking at individual level data vs population
case-control studies what?
rare diseases
Rare risk vs Rare disease
rare disease: case-control

rare risk: cohort
if you have 2 groups, and you have the 95% CI, what do the values have to be in order to be statistically significant?
they 95 CI values CANNOT OVERLAP

if they overlap there is NO STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
if RR is less than one with respect to women exercising and women getting breast cancer, what does this mean?
That exercising decreases the chance of getting breast cancer

if the value were 1, there would be no relationship (they were equal)

if it was greater than 1 that would mean exercise would actually make it worse
what type of data contains the least amount of info?

the most?
least: nominal (things like color)

most: ratio (temp kalvin or BP)
describe the diff btw skewness and kurtosis
skewness: horizontal

kurtosis: vertical (will look all bumpy and shiz)
does mean=mode=median if you have a kurtosis?
what are the 5 steps in EBM
disadvantages of meta-analysis?
publication bias

fact that most of what is published tends to focus on positive findings (it can be hard to publish negative)
what type of research study is considered to be most scientifically rigorous?
internal vs. external validity
internal: study actually studies what it says it is

external: generalize the info you got to the population
statistical power is which box?
if you increase statistical power what does this do?
higher likely hood that you can reject your H0 and find significance
how do you increase statistical power?
increase sample size