Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/115

Click to flip

115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Thorax
Function of the thoracic wall?
1) Protect contents of the thoracic cavity.
2) Provide mechanical function for breathing.
Thorax
The endothoracic fascia lies between what structures?
Parietal pleura and innermost intercostal MM
Thorax
What are the upper and lower borders thoracic chest?
Neck and abdomen
Thorax
What are the contents of the thoracic cavity?
Thymus
Heart
Lungs
Distal trachea
Most of esophagus
Thorax
What are the 3 parts of the sternum?
Manubrium, Body, Xiphoid process
Thorax
What are the borders of the thoracic inlet/Superior Thoracic aperture?
First pair of ribs
Manubrium
T1
Thorax
What are the contents of the thoracic inlet?
Trachea
Esophagus
Vagus CNX
Phrenic C3,4,5
Apex of lungs
Thorax
What are the borders of the thoracic outlet/Inferior thoracic aperture?
12th pair of ribs
T12
Costal margin - costal cartilage 7-10
Thorax
Where is the xiphoid process located?
T10 or T11
Thorax
Where is the sternal angle/angle of Louis located?
T4 or T5
Thorax
Which costal cartilage articulates with the manubriosternal joint?
Rib number 2
Thorax
What structures are present at the angle of Louis?
1) Bifurcation of trachea- carina.
2) Arch of aorta.
3) T4/T5, intervertebral disc
Thorax
Longest rib?
7
Thorax
Shortest rib?
12
Thorax
Typical ribs?
3-9
Thorax
Atypical ribs?
1,2,10-12
Thorax
True Ribs?
1-7
Thorax
False ribs?
8-10
Thorax
Floating ribs?
11,12
Thorax
What structures are found on the costal groove?
VAN
Vein, Artery, Nerve
Thorax
Bucket Handle movement?
Middle parts of ribs move lateral when elevated
Thorax
Pump Handle movement?
Elevation of upper ribs, with a greater emphasis as you move inferior, increases the AP diameter
Thorax
The Diaphragm separates what 2 structures?
Thoracic cavity from the abdomen
Thorax
Contents and level of Aortic opening?
Level of T12
1) Thoracic Aorta
2) Thoracic Duct
3) Greater Splachnic Nerves (T5-9)
4) Azygos Vein
Thorax
Contents and level of the Esophageal Opening?
Level of T10
1) Esophagus
2) R and L Vagus Nerve CNX
3) Esophageal branch of L and R Gastric Artery and Vein
Thorax
Contents and level of Cavel Opening?
Level of T8
1) Phrenic Nerve C3-5
2) IVC
3) Lymphatics
Thorax
Blood supply to anterior thoracic wall?
ICS 1-6 - Anterior thoracic from Internal thoracic artery
ICS 7-9 - Anterior thoracic from musculoohrenic artery
NO ANTERIOR TO ICS 10-11
Thorax
Blood supply to the posterior thoracic wall?
ICS 1 - Highest intercostal or Posterior intercostal Artery
ICS 2-11 - Posterior intercostal Artery
ICS 12 - Subcostal Artery
Thorax
Which vein drains the anterior aspect of the thoracic cage?
Internal thoracic vein which drains into the brachiocephalic vein
Thorax
Which vein drains the posterior aspect of the thoracic wall?
Azygos vein which drains into the SVC
Thorax
Which veins drain the right side of the thoracic wall?
ICS1 - Highest intercostal vein which drains into Brachiocephalic.
ICS2,3 - Higher intercostal vein which drains into Azygos vein.
ICS4-11 - Azygos vein which drains into SVC.
ICS 12 - Subcostal veins which drain into the Azygos vein.
Thorax
Which veins drain the left side of the thoracic wall?
ICS 1 - Highest Intercostal vein which drains into the brachiocephalic.
ICS 2,3,4 - Accessory hemiazygos vein which drains into the Azygos.
ICS 5-12 - Hemiazygos which drains into the Azygos vein
Thorax
The right lymphatic duct drains what part of the body?
Right side of head and neck.
Right thorax.
Right upper extremity.
Thorax
The thoracic duct drains?
80% of the body. Everything the right lymphatic duct doesn't.
Thorax
Mid axillary line penetration?
1) Skin
2) Superficial fascia
3) Deep fascia
4) Serratus anterior M
5) External intercostal MM
6) Internal Intercostal MM
7) Innermost Intercostal MM
8) Endothoracic fascia
9) Parietal pleura
10) Pleural cavity
11) Visceral Pleura
12) Lungs
Thorax
The thickened endothoracic fascia over the apex of the lungs is called the?
Sibsons fascia
Thorax
Clinical significance of a Cervical rib?
Rib arising from C7. Compression of brachial plexus and subclavian artery.
Thorax
Clinical significance of a Lumbar rib?
More common than cervical rib. May result in misidentification of vertebral levels and misidentified as a fractured transverse process of L1.
Thorax
Flail chest?
Paradoxical chest movement. Inward with inspiration and outward with expiration.
Thorax
Rib dislocation?
Costal cartilage from sternum (2-7).
Thorax
Rib separation?
Rib from costal cartilage
Thorax
Rickets?
Vit D deficiency. Enlargement of ends of ribs
Thorax
Thoracostomy?
Puncture of ICS 4 or 5
Thorax
Serous sac surrounding the lungs?
Pleural sac
Thorax
Pleura lining the thoracic wall, thoracic diaphragm, and lateral mediastinum?
Parietal pleura
Thorax
Pleura covering the external lungs and extending into the interlobar fissures?
Visceral pleura
Thorax
Where does the parietal pleura become continuous with the visceral pleura?
Hilum of each lung
Thorax
What structure connects the lung to the heart and trachea?
Lung root
Thorax
Function of the pleural space/cavity?
Lubrication separating the visceral and parietal pleura by reducing friction
Thorax
What is the cupula?
Parietal pleura over apex of lungs
Thorax
What is a pleural recess and what is it's function?
Potential space where parietal pleura are in contact with each other during respiration allowing for lung expansion during inspiration
Thorax
Where is the lowest pleural recess?
Costodiaphragmatic recess at mid axillary line, ICS 9
Thorax
Blood supply to the parietal pleura?
Intercostal AA and Internal thoracic AA
Thorax
Blood supply to the visceral pleura?
Bronchial AA from Thoracic Aorta
Thorax
Nerve supply to the parietal pleura?
Phrenic nerve C3-5
Intercostal N 1-11
Subcostal N 12
Thorax
Nerve supply to the visceral pleura?
Does not have a nerve supply
Thorax
What ligaments attache the lungs to the pericadium?
Pulmonary ligaments
Thorax
The apex of the lung extends how far above the clavicle?
1 in or 2.5 cm
Thorax
The bronchi, vessels, and nerves enter the lung to form what structure and where?
Lung root middle mediastinal surface
Thorax
Describe the anterior border of the lung?
Thin, overlaps the heart.
Thorax
What is the cardiac notch and what costal cartilages does it correspond with?
Notch on left lung overlapping the heart. Costal cartilage 4,5,6
Thorax
Describe the posterior border of the lung?
Thick, lies beside the vertebral column
Thorax
Where does the oblique fissure start and end?
Starts 2.5 cm from apex of lung. Ends at costal cartilage 6
Thorax
Where is the horizontal fissure of the right lung located?
Costal cartilage 4
Thorax
What is the Lingula?
The superior lobe of the left lung has a modified middle lobe.
Thorax
What are the 7 depressions/grooves of the right lung?
1) Tracheal groove
2) Esophageal groove
3) SVC groove
4) IVC groove
5) Azygos vein groove
6) Cardiac depression
7) Diaphragmatic depression
Thorax
What are the 4 grooves/depressions of the left lung?
1) Cardiac depression
2) Aortic Arch groove
3) Descending Aorta groove
4) Diaphragmatic depression
Thorax
Blood supply to the lungs?
1) Bronchial AA from thoracic aorta.
2) Pulmonary AA.
Thorax
Venous supply of the lungs?
Bronchial VV drain into Azygos system and into the Pulmonary VV
Thorax
Lymphatic drainage of the lungs?
From hilum -> pulmonary nodes -> Tracheobronchial nodes
Thorax
Nerve supply to the lungs?
1) Vagus which causes bronchial constriction, vasodilation, and increased glandular secretion. Also sensory.
2) Adrenal medulla through the sympathetic trunk (T2-5) causing bronchial dilation and vasoconstriction
Thorax
Where does the trachea begin?
Continuation of the larynx. Lower border of cricoid cartilage C6
Thorax
The trachea deviates slightly to which side at the angle of louis?
Right just before it splits
Thorax
Where the does trachea divide?
Sternal angle, disc between T4-T5
Thorax
What are the measurements of the trachea?
2.5cm in width 9-15cm in length. For a 70kg man
Thorax
Which side of the trachea contains 15-20 C shaped cartilages?
Anterior
Thorax
Name the 5 structures anterior to the trachea?
1) Sternum
2) Thmyus
3) Arch of aorta
4) Origin of brachiocephalic trunk
5) Origin of Left common carotid A
Thorax
Name the 8 structures posterior to the trachea?
1) Esophagus
2) Azygos V
3) Vagus NN
4) Left Phrenic N
5) Arch of aorta
6) Left common carotid A
7) Left subclavian A
8) Pleura
Thorax
Blood supply to the trachea?
1) Thyroid AA
2) Bronchial AA
3) Internal thoracic A
Thorax
Nerve supply to the trachea?
1) Vagus CN X
2) Sympathetic chain
Thorax
What are the differences between the Right and Left main bronchi?
Right is thicker, shorter, and more vertical. Gives off superior lobar bronchus before entering hilum. In hilum divides into middle and inferior.

Left divides into a superior and inferior in the hilum.
Thorax
Blood supply to the bronchi?
1) Bronichial AA (non respiratory)
2) Pulmonary AA to terminal bronchioles
Thorax
Venous drainage of bronchi?
Bronchial VV to Azygos V and Hemiazygos V
Thorax
Nerve supply of the bronchi?
Parasympathetic from vagus - bronchi constriction and mucus secretion.
Sympathetic chain - bronchi dilation
Thorax
Superior and inferior borders of mediastinum?
Superior - thoracic inlet/ root of neck.
Inferior - Diaphragm
Thorax
Anterior and posterior borders of mediastinum?
Anterior - Posterior surface of sternum to anterior surface of pericardial sac
Posterior - vertebral column
Thorax
What thoracic vertebra are part of the superior/inferior mediastinum?
Superior - T1-T4
Inferior - T5-T12
Thorax
What are the contents of the superior mediastinum?
1) Aortic arch, Brachiocephalic, Carotid, Subcalvian AA
2)SVC, brachiocephalic, jugular, subclavian VV
3) Thymus gland
4) Esophagus
5) Trachea
6) Thoracic duct
7) Phrenic N
Thorax
What are the contents of the Inferior Anterior mediastinum?
1) Fatty tissue
2) Thymus gland
3) Lymph nodes
Thorax
What are the contents of the inferior middle mediastinum?
1) Heart
2) Pericardium
3) Main bronchi
4) Great vessels
5) Phrenic N
Thorax
What are the contents of the inferior posterior mediastinum?
1) Esophagus
2) Thoracic aorta
3) Azygos V
4) Thoracic duct
5) Vagus N
6) Splanchnic N
Thorax
The pericardium is located between what costal cartilages and what vertebra?
Costal cartilage 2-6.
Vertebra T5-T8.
Thorax
What ligament attaches the pericardium to the sternum?
Sternopericardial ligament
Thorax
What structure attaches the pericardium to the diaphragm?
Central tendon
Thorax
What are the layers of heart penetration starting with the pericardium?
1) Pericardium
2) Fibrous pericardium
3) Parietal pericardium
4) Pericardial cavity
5) Visceral pericardium/Epicardium
6) Myocardium
7) Endocardium
8) Chambers of the heart
Thorax
Where is the transverse sinus of the heart located?
Posterior to the aortic arch and Pulmonary trunk.
Anterior to the left atrium and SVC.
Thorax
Where is the oblique sinus of the heart located?
Between the pulmonary veins and IVC
Thorax
Nerve supply to the parietal pericardium?
Phrenic C3-5
Vagus CN X
Thorax
Nerve supply to the visceral pericardium?
Coronary plexus
Thorax
Blood supply to the heart?
1) Pericardiophrenic
2) Musculophrenic
3) Pericardial branches of thoracic aorta
Visceral - Coronary AA from ascending aorta
Thorax
Deviation of the heart in the median plane?
2/3 left 1/3 right
Thorax
Where is the apex of the heart located?
Costal cartilage 6, 7-9cm from the median plane and just medial to the midclavicular line
Thorax
Which left costal cartilages does the heart correspond to?
3-5
Thorax
Which vertebra does the heart correspond to erect and supine?
Erect - T5-T9
Supine - T5-T8
Thorax
What structure encircles most of the superior heart and separates the atria from the ventricles?
Coronary groove or Sulcus
Thorax
What surface structure separates the ventricles?
Anterior and posterior interventricular groove
Thorax
Know the blood supply to the heart
Branches of the right and left Coronary AA
Thorax
Which vein accompanies PAD?
Middle Cardiac vein
Thorax
Which vein accompanies the right Marginal Branch of the right Coronary A?
Small Cardiac vein
Thorax
Which vein accompanies LAD?
Great cardiac vein
Thorax
Anastomoses of left and right Coronary AA?
1) Nodal
2) About the conus arteriosum
3) Circumflex
4) LAD
5) PAD
Thorax
Know the venous supply of anterior and posterior heart?
?????
Thorax
Tributaries of the coronary sinus?
1) Great Cardiac V
2) Small Cardiac V
3) Middle Cardiac V
4) Oblique Cardiac V
All except Anterior Cardiac VV
Thorax
At the angle of louis which nerve hooks under the ligamentum arteriosum?
Left recurrent laryngeal N
Thorax
Which nerve passes under the Right Subclavian A?
Right recurrent laryngeal N