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10 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Charles Spearman
proposed a theory of two factors (General Ability "g" and Special Ability), which is based on the observation that those people who perform well on the tests of general intelligence do usually perform well on tests for special abilities (like verbal or mathematical processing) and vice-versa. Thus, Spearman's main idea was that gifted people are gifted in general and dull people are generally dull the same way. This theory was widely accepted for practical use.
believed that Spearman's hypothesis of a general factor did not fully reflect the intelligence and was a practical success only because of the simple averaging of more primary mental abilities. He identified 7 of them, which he considered would describe intelligence more specifically. The abilities are verbal relations, verbal fluency, number, memory, perceptual speed, induction, and spatial visualization.
Raymond Cattell
believed that "g" is composed of fluid and crystallized intelligence. He considered that fluid intelligence was based on the abilities to see the relations between things and prevailed during the first part of a person's life, while the crystallized intelligence was based on acquired knowledge and skills and prevailed after about 40 years old.
Robert Sternberg
proposed a triarchic model of three intelligences, namely: analytical (A), practical (P) and creative (C). A is similar to standard psychometric definition of intelligence, P is the one, solving real life problems in everyday life and C is responsible for insight, synthesis, and the ability to react to novel stimuli and situations. The existence of P and C shows that this theory views intelligence wider then it gets from a classical Spearman's "g" theory and, in part, explains why some people, who have very high IQ often fail to succeed in life. Steinberg has developed STAT (Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test), a battery of multiple-choice questions that measures all 3 intelligences on separate scales. This theory is notable for marking the shift of concepts towards understanding the nature of intelligence by identifying the underlying cognitive processing involved in intelligence.
Howard Gardner
developed a theory of multiple intelligences (7 originally). Unlike most other theories, Gardner does support his approach purely through statistical reanalysis of data, but also involves developmental, neurophysiologic, case study and educational evidence. According to Gardner, the intelligence consists of linguistic, logical-mathematic, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal. Later he has added existential and naturalist intelligences.
Vernon & Carroll
proposed a hierarchical model, where Spearman's general intelligence "g" takes the top position, then it can be broken down into major group factors, which are also divided into minor group factors, close to Thurstone's primary mental abilities. This model is one of the most widely accepted nowadays
psychometric approach
emphasizes people’s performance on standardized aptitude tests. Aptitude tests predict people’s future ability to acquire skills or knowledge. Achievement tests, on the other hand, measure skills and knowledge that people have already learned
The Binet-Simon Scale
Alfred Binet and his colleague Theodore Simon devised this general test of mental ability in 1905, and it was revised in 1908 and 1911. The test yielded scores in terms of mental age. Mental age is the chronological age that typically corresponds to a particular level of performance.
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
yields scores in terms of intelligence quotients. The intelligence quotient (IQ) is the mental age divided by the chronological age and multiplied by 100. IQ scores allowed children of different ages to be compared.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
contains many items that assess nonverbal reasoning ability and therefore depends less on verbal ability that does the Stanford-Binet. It also provides separate scores of verbal intelligence and nonverbal or performance intelligence, as well as a score that indicates overall intelligence.