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383 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who is the father of psychoanalysis?
Sigmund Freud.
What is psychoanalysis?
It is both a form of treatment and a very comprehensive personality theory developed by Sigmund Freud.
Who created individual psychology?
Alfred Adler.
Who created analytic psychology?
Carl Jung.
What is Freud the father of?
What is Adler credited with creating?
Individual psychology.
What is Jung credited with creating?
Analytic psychology.
Who was Joseph Breuer?
A Viennese neurologist who taught Freud the value of the talking cure, which is also termed catharsis.
What is catharsis?
The "talking cure."
Who is A. A. Brill?
He is usually associated with the impact that Freudian theory has on career choice.
Who was Rollo May?
He was a prime mover in the existential counseling movement.
Who was Eric Berne?
He is credited with creating Transactional Analysis.
Who was credited with creating Transactional Analysis?
Eric Berne.
What three ego states are posited in Transactional Analysis?
The Child, the Adult, and the Parent.
What do the three ego states in Transactional Analysis correspond to in Freud's structural theory?
The id, ego, and superego.
What are Freud's three ego states in his structural theory?
The id, ego, and superego.
How does Freud explain the topographic notion regarding the mind's depth?
The unconscious, preconscious, and conscious (iceberg analogy)
What is the Parent ego state?
It has been likened to Freud's superego. If a child has nurturing caretakers, he or she is said to develop "nurturing parent" qualities such as being nonjudgmental and sympathetic to others. It may also be filled with prejudicial and critical messages. Persons who fall into this category will tend to be intimidating, bossy, or know-it-alls.
According to Freud, what leads to the development of the superego?
The successful resolution of the Oedipus Complex.
What is the Oedipus Complex?
The child's libido or sex energy is directed toward the parent of the opposite sex. The child, nevertheless, realizes that retaliation would result if he or she would act on these impulses. The child thus strives for identification with the parent of the same sex to achieve vicarious sexual satisfaction.
What is the female equivalent of the Oedipus Complex?
The Electra Complex.
What is transference?
It implies that the client displaces emotion felt toward a parent onto the analyst, counselor, or therapist. It is often considered a form of projection, displacement, and repetition in which the client treats the counselor in the same manner as he or she would an authority figure from the past (e.g., a mother, a father, a caretaker, or significant other)
What is the ego?
It is the "executive administrator" of the personality and the reality principle since it governs or acts as a police officer to control the impulses of the id and the superego. It houses the individual's identity. It is the mediator. In a seesaw analogy, it is the fulcrum.
What is the id?
The pleasure principle; the seat of libido. Instincts. It is present at birth and never matures. It operates mainly out of awareness to satisfy instinctual needs according to the pleasure principle. Chaotic; has no sense of time.
What is eros?
The Greek god of love. Self-preservation.
What is thanatos?
The Greek word for death. It is used to describe a death wish or what is sometimes called the death instinct.
What is the superego?
The conscience; the ego ideal. It judges behaviors as right or wrong. It is more concerned with the ideal than what is real. It is composed of values, morals, and ideals of parents, caretakers, and society.
What is free association?
It is literally defined as instructing the client to say whatever comes to mind. The antithesis of directive approaches
What is directive counseling?
When the client is asked to discuss certain material.
Who was Joseph Wolpe?
He developed a paradigm known as "systematic desensitization."
What is systematic desensitization?
It is useful when trying to weaken (desensitize) a client's response to an anxiety-producing stimuli.
According to Freud, what are dreams?
They were the royal road to the unconscious mind. They are composed of a surface meaning (manifest content) and then a hidden meaning (latent content).
What are manifest and latent content?
The surface meaning and the hidden meaning (such as in a dream)
What is insight?
It refers to the process of making a client aware of something which was previously unknown. This increases self-knowledge. It is often described as a novel sudden understanding of a problem Equated with the work of gestalt psychologist Wolfgang Kohler.
What is resistance?
Psychoanalysts believe that a client who is will be reluctant to bring unconscious ideas into the conscious mind. Nonanalytic counselors generally utilize the term in a looser context and use the word to describe clients who are fighting the helping process in any manner.
What is John Broadus Watson credited with?
The case of Little Albert. He pioneered American Behaviorism.
Who were Watson and Rayner?
They developed the Little Albert experiment.
What was the Little Albert experiment?
In 1920, Watson and Rayner conditioned an 11-month-old boy named Albert to be afraid of furry objects. First, Albert was exposed to a white rat. Initially, the child was not afraid of the rat; however, Watson and Rayner would strike a steel bar, which created a loud noise whenever the child would get near the animal. This created a conditioned (learned) fear in the child. This experiment has been used to demonstrate the behavioristic concept that fears are learned rather than the analytic concept that they are somehow the result of an unconscious process.
Who was Anna O.?
In the 1880s, she was considered the first psychoanalytic patient. She was a patient of Freud's colleague Joseph Breuer. She suffered from symptoms without an organic basis, which was termed hysteria. In hypnosis, she would remember painful events which she was unable to recall while awake. Talking about these traumatic events brought about relief and this became the talking cure, or catharsis.
Who was Little Hans?
It is a case often used to contrast behavior therapy with psychoanalysis. It reflects the data in Freud's 1909 paper, "An Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy" in which a child's fear of going into the streets and perhaps even having a horse bite him were explained using psychoanalytic constructs such as the Oedipus Complex and castration anxiety. He reflects psychoanalytic explanations of behavior.
Who is Daniel Paul Schreber?
He has been called the "most frequently quoted case in modern psychiatry." In 1903, he (after spending 9 years in a mental hospital) wrote "Memoirs of a Mental Patient." His family was rather wealthy and bought almost every copy in circulation. Nevertheless, Freud got his hands on one and in 1911 published "Psychoanalytical Notes upon an Autobiographical Account of a Case of Paranoia." His major delusion was that he would be transformed into a woman, become God's mate, and produce a healthier race. Freud felt that he might have been struggling with unconscious issues of homosexuality.
What is classical psychoanalysis like?
It is quite lengthy, often 3-5 sessions a week for several years. Can often be expensive. Couch to enhance the free association process.
What is psychodynamic therapy like?
Makes use of analytic principles (e.g., the unconscious mind) but relies on less sessions per week to make it a bit more practical. Therapists generally sit face to face.
What is abreaction?
Another word for catharsis.
What is accurate empathy?
The counselor can truly understand what the client is feeling or experiencing.
What is the most controversial aspect of Freud's theory?
The Oedipus/Electra complex.
What is the most important concept in Freud's theory?
The unconscious.
What are SUDS?
Subjective Units of Distress Scale. It is a concept used in forming a hierarchy to perform Wolpe's systematic desensitization. It is created via the process of introspection by rating the anxiety associated with the situation. Generally, the scale most counselors use is 0 to 100, with 100 being the most threatening situation. The counselor can ask a client to rate imagine situations on the subjective units of distress scale so that a treatment hierarchy can be formulated.
What is parapraxis?
Freud called slips of the tongue which are the "psychopathology of everyday life."
What is the preconscious mind?
It is capable of bringing ideas, images, and thoughts into awareness with minimal difficulty. It can access information from the conscious as well as the unconscious mind.
What is the conscious?
It is aware of the immediate environment.
What is the unconscious?
It is composed of material which is normally unknown or hidden from the client.
What are the nine ego defense mechanisms?
Rationalization, compensation, repression, projection, reaction formation, identification, introjection, denial, and displacement.
What is the most important ego defense mechanism?
Repression, because this can cause problems later on in life. If the repressed memory is brought back into the conscious, it can be dealt with.
What is reaction formation?
It occurs when a person can't accept a given impulse and thus behaves in the opposite manner.
What is denial?
Similar to repression, except that it is a conscious act. For example, an individual who says, "I refuse to think about it."
What is sublimation?
It is present when a person acts out un unconscious impulse in a socially acceptable way. For example, a very aggressive person might pursue a career in boxing, wrestling, or football.
What is suppression?
It is another name for denial.
What is rationalization?
It is simply an intellectual excuse to minimize hurt feelings. For example, a student who says "Hey, I'm glad I didn't get good grades. Only nerds get good grades." This person will tend to interpret his thoughts and feelings in a positive or favorable manner.
What is displacement?
It occurs when an impulse is unleashed at a safe target. The prototype example would be when the man who is furious with his boss but is afraid to show it comes home and kicks the family dog.
What is subliminal perception?
It supposedly occurs when you perceive something unconsciously and thus it has an impact on your behavior. The APA has taken the position that this is not effective.
Who is Wilson Bryan Key?
He wrote books such as "Subliminal Seduction" and "Media Sexploitation" in which he points out how advertisers and others have relied on subliminal perception.
What is introjection?
It takes place when a child accepts a parent, caretaker, or significant other's values as his or her own. A sexually abused child might, for example, attempt to sexually abuse other children.
What is identification?
It results when a person with a cause or a successful person with the unconscious hope that he or she will be perceived as successful or worthwhile. Or, doing so to the other person might serve to lower the fear or anxiety toward that person.
What is a Type II error?
Also called a beta error. It means that a researcher has accepted a null hypothesis (i.e., that there is no difference between an experimental group and a group not receiving any experimental treatment) when it is false.
What is sour grapes rationalization?
Sour grapes is the false denial of desire for something sought but not acquired; to denigrate and feign disdain for that which one could not attain. (
What is the sweet lemon rationalization?
The person tells you how wonderful a distasteful set of circumstances really is.
What is rationalization?
The person either underrates a reward (sour grapes) or overrates a reward (sweet lemon) to protect the self from a bruised ego.
What is projection?
This person attributes unacceptable qualities of his or her own onto others.
What is compensation?
It is evident when an individual attempts to develop or overdevelop a positive trait to make up for a limitation (i.e., a perceived inferiority). The person secretly hopes that others will focus on the positives rather than the negative factors.
What is the main criticism of Freud?
That his theories are difficult to test from a scientific standpoint.
What is the totem?
An object that represents a family or group according to Freud.
What is the taboo?
Incest. Even primitive peoples feared incestuous relationships according to Freud.
What is the purpose of interpretation?
It makes the clients aware of their unconscious processes.
What is individual psychology?
It stresses the unique qualities we each possess. It is keen on analyzing organ inferiority and methods in which the individual attempts to compensate for it. Alfred Adler.
Who was Wolfgang Kohler?
A gestalt psychologist equated with the term "insight." He studied chimps and apes on the Canary Islands and wrote the 1925 book "The Mentality of Apes.
What are the three types of learning?
Reinforcement (operant conditioning), association (classical conditioning), and insight.
What is transference neurosis?
When a client is attached to the counselor as he or she is a substitute parent.
What is countertransference?
Evident when the counselor's strong feelings or attachment to the client are stron enough to hinder the treatment process.
What is the logos principle?
Men operate on logic, and operate on this principle.
What is the Eros principle?
Women are intuitive and operate on this principle.
What is a mandala?
A term borrowed from Hindu writings where it was the symbol of meditation. Jung used a mandala (drawings with a center point) to analyze his clients and their dreams. Jung's writings, it also stood for a magic protective circle that represents self-unification.
What is eidetic imagery?
The ability to remember the most minute details of a scene or a picture for an extended period of time. Often gone by the time a child reaches adolescence. Lay persons refer to it as a "photographic memory."
Who emphasized the drive for superiority?
Alfred Adler.
What is the major drive responsible for human behavior according to Adler?
Initially, he felt that aggressive drives were responsible for most human behavior. He then altered the theory slightly and said that the major factor was the "will to power." Finally, he concluded that it was the "striving for superiority" or a thirst for perfection that motivated behavior. It did not imply that the person wanted to dominate others or become a political figure or one of the ruling class.
What did Adler say regarding sibling relationships?
He felt that sibling interaction might have more impact than the parent/child interaction.
What are some of the criticisms of Freud according to Adler?
His child development theories were not based on extensive research or observations of children's behavior.
Who are some key Neo-Freudians?
Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Erik Erikson, Harry Stack Sullivan, Erich Fromm
What did Neo-Freudians emphasize?
They stressed the importance of cultural (social) issues and interpersonal (social) relations.
What is a baseline?
According to behaviorists it indicates the frequency that a behavior is manifested prior to or in the absence of treatment.
What is unconditional positive regard?
Popularized by Carl Rogers, he felt that the counselor must care for the client even when the counselor is uncomfortable or disagrees with the client's position. In essence, the counselor accepts the client just the way he or she is without any stipulations.
What is introversion?
Jungian term. It meant a turning in of the libido. This type of individual would be his or her own primary source of pleasure. They would shy away from social situations, if possible.
What is extroversion?
Jungian term. It is the tendency to find satisfaction and pleasure in other people. These individuals seek external rewards.
With whom are the terms "introversion" and "extroversion" associated with?
Carl Jung.
The personality types of the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory are associated with whom?
Carl Jung.
What is the MBTI?
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. It is said to be the most widely used measure of personality preferences and dispositions. This measure can be used to assess upper elementary children, aged 12 and over, all the way through adulthood and yields a four-letter cods, or "type," based on four bi-polar scales.
What are the four bi-polar scales of the MBTI?
Introversion/Extroversion, Intuition/Sensing (i.e., current perception), Thinking/Feeling (i.e., future abstractions and possibilities), Judging/Perceiving (i.e., observing events)
What is social connectedness?
It suggests that we need one another and emphasizes that people wish to belong. It is a term coined by Adler.
What is the collective unconscious?
A term coined by C. G. Jung, it implies that all humans have "collected" universal inherited unconscious neural patterns.
What are paradoxical techniques?
Jung used paradoxical techniques. They are associated with the work of Victor Frankl. These strategies often seem to defy logic as he client is instructed to intensify or purposely engage in maladaptive behavior. These interventions are often the direct antithesis of common sense directives. They have been very with family therapists due to the work of Jay Haley and Milton H. Erickson. Currently, this technique is popular with family therapists who believe it reduces a family's resistance to change.
What is anima?
A Jungian term to describe how he felt that society caused men to deny their feminine side.
(ma = feminine)
What is animus?
A Jungian term to describe how he felt that society caused women to deny their masculine side.
(mus = muscles)
What is yin and yang?
In Chinese Taoist philosophy, they are the feminine and masculine forces in the universe, respectively.
What are archetypes?
A Jungian term. Archetypes make up the collective unconscious common to all men and women. It is passed from generation to generation. It is actually a primal universal symbol which means the same thing to all men and women.
What is the persona?
A Jungian term. A common archetype, it is the mask or role we present to others to hide our true self.
What is the shadow?
A Jungian term. A common archetype, is is the mask behind the persona, which contains id-like material, denied, yet desired. It is often called the dark side of the personality, though it is not necessarily negative. Jung noted that it encompasses everything an individual refused to acknowledge. It represents the unconscious opposite of the individual's conscious expression. For example, a shy retired individual might have recurring dreams that he or she is very outgoing, verbal, and popular. In addition to dreams, its basic nature is also evident when an individual engages in projection. The clinical assumption is made that projection will decrease and individuation will increase as therapy renders this thing's behaviors conscious
What is confrontation?
Its essence is to illuminate discrepancies between the client's and the helper's conceptualization of a given situation.
What is accurate empathy?
It occurs when a counselor is able to experience the client's point of view in terms of feelings and cognitions.
What is summarization?
It transpires whenever a counselor brings together the ideas discussed during a period of dialogue.
What is the difference between symptom substitution and symptom reduction?
Substitution is an analytic concept, (when you treat only symptoms you will not get to real unconscious mind where the root causes lies); while reduction is a behaviorist concept whereby the goal is to reduce symptoms.
What is an eclectic counselor?
They use the theories and techniques from several models of intervention, rather than simply relying on one. They use "the best from every approach." About 50% of counselors claim to be this and a number of studies indicate that it is on the rise. They attempt to choose the best theoretical approach based on the client's attributes, resources, and situation. It is associated most with Frederick C. Thorne.
Who is Frederick C. Thorne?
He felt that true eclecticism was much more than a "hodgepodge of facts"; it needed to be rigidly scientific. He preferred the term "psychological case handling" rather than "psychotherapy," as he felt the efficacy of psychotherapy had not been scientifically demonstrated.
What is counter transference?
It occurs when the counselor's past is projected onto the client and the helper's objectivity suffers markedly
What is cognitive dissonance?
It suggests that humans will feel quite uncomfortable if they have two incompatible or inconsistent beliefs and thus the person will be motivated to reduce the dissonance.
What do Adlerians emphasize and believe?
They emphasize lifestyle, birth order, and family constellation. They believe that our lifestyle is a predictable self-fulfilling prophecy based on our psychological feelings about ourselves. They stress the importance of birth order in the family constellation
What is the importance of birth order to Adlerians?
The firstborn/oldest child could be dethroned by a later child who gets most of the attention; thus the firstborn would be prone to experience feelings of inferiority. Firstborns often go to great lengths to please their parents. A second child will often try to compete with the firstborn child and often surpasses the first child's performance. A middle child (or children) will often feel that he or she is being treated unfairly. Middle children are sometimes seen as being quite manipulative. The youngest child or baby in the family can be pampered or spoiled. The good news is that they often excel by modeling/imitating the older children's behavior. This concept has been criticized by some theorists such as Wayne Dyer.
Who is Wayne Dyer?
A critic of birth order theories, he wrote the self-improvement book "Your Erroneous Zones" which outsold every book written in the decade of the 1970s.
What brand of psychotherapy grew out of existentialism?
Logotherapy was Developed by neurologist and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl. * Life has meaning under all circumstances, even the most miserable ones.
* Our main motivation for living is our will to find meaning in life.
* We have freedom to find meaning in what we do, and what we experience, or at least in the stand we take when faced with a situation of unchangeable suffering.
What is associationism?
It asserts that ideas are held together by associations. It had its roots in an essay written by Aristotle on the nature of memory. Other pioneers include John Locke, David Hume, James Mill, and David Hartley. It is considered the philosophy that led to the formation of behaviorism.
With what psychotherapy is John Locke associated with?
What is the law of effect?
It asserts that responses accompanied by satisfaction (i.e., it pleases you) will be repeated while those which produce unpleasantness or discomfort will be stamped out.
What concept is Arnold Lazarus associated with?
BASIC-ID, used in Multimodal Therapeutic approach that is eclectic and holistic.
What does BASIC-ID stand for and who created it?
Created by Arnold Lazarus, this multimodal therapeutic approach focuses on seven key modalities or areas of the client's functioning: B = acts, habits, and reactions; A = affective responses such as emotions, feelings, and mood; S = sensations, including hearing, touch, sight, smell, and taste; I = images/the way we perceive others, ourselves, including memories and dreams; C = cognitions such as our thoughts, insights, and even our philosophy of life; I = interpersonal relationships (i.e., the way we interact with others); and D = drugs, that would include alcohol, legal, illegal, and prescription drug usage, diet, and nutritional supplementation.
Classical conditioning relates to the work of whom?
Ivan Pavlov
Who is E. G. Williamson?
The father of the so-called Minnesota Viewpoint. Popular some years ago, especially with career counselors, this approach attempts to match the client's traits with a career. Also known as the trait factor approach.
With what is Ivan Pavlov associated with?
Classical conditioning.
Describe the difference between a conditioned and an unconditioned response?
Something that is conditioned is something that is learned; something that is unconditioned is unlearned. Therefore, a response such as salivation is an unconditioned response.
What is an acquisition period?
It refers to the time it takes to learn or acquire a given behavior.
What is another name for operant conditioning?
Instrumental learning.
What is instrumental learning?
Operant conditioning.
Who is associated with operant conditioning?
B. F. Skinner.
With what is B. F. Skinner associated with?
Operant conditioning.
What is respondent behavior?
What do reinforcers do?
All reinforcer's, both positive and negative, raise the probability that an antecedent (prior) behavior will occur.
What is the procedure known as "differential reinforcement of other behavior" or DRO?
It is when the counselor positively reinforces an individual for engaging in a healthy alternative behavior. The assumption is that as the alternative desirable behavior increases via reinforcement, the client will not display the inappropriate target behavior as frequently. In the case of negative reinforcement, something is taken away after the behavior occurs.
What is a secondary reinforcer?
It is a neutral stimulus, such as a plastic token, which becomes reinforcing by association. Thus, a plastic token could be exchanged for known reinforcers.
What is punishment?
It lowers the probability that a behavior will occur.
What is positive punishment?
It is said to occur when something is added after a behavior and the behavior decreases.
What is negative punishment?
It is said to take place when a stimulus is removed following the behavior and the response decreases.
Who is William Glasser, MD?
He is the father of Reality Therapy.
Which is more a more effective behavior modifier, reinforcement or punishment?
In the classic Pavlovian experiment, what was the Unconditioned Stimulus?
The meat. (unlearned)
In the classic Pavlovian experiment, what was the bell considered to be?
The conditioned stimulus.
What is the most effective time interval between the Conditioned Stimulus and the Unconditioned Stimulus?
0.5 seconds. As the interval exceeds 1/2 second, more trials are needed for effective conditioning. Remember: C comes before U
What is delay conditioning?
It is when the CS is delayed until the US occurs.
What is trace conditioning?
It is when the CS terminates before the occurrence of the US. The CS will terminate prior to the onset of the US.
What happens when the Unconditioned Stimulus is placed before the Conditioned Stimulus?
No conditioning. This is called backwards conditioning.
What is stimulus generalization?
Also called "second order conditioning," it occurs hen a stimulus similar to the CS produces the same reaction. Example: Little Albert. Pavlov called this irradiation.
What is stimulus discrimination?
It is nearly the opposite of stimulus generalization. Here, the learning process is "fine tuned" to respond only to a specific stimulus. At times, it is also referred to as "stimulus differentiation."
What is pica?
The tendency for humans to eat objects that are not food, such as chewing on a pencil or lead paint. Some people believe it is a psychological difficulty, while other experts insist it occurs due to a lack of minerals in the diet.
What is experimental neurosis?
This occurs when the differentiation process is too tough because the stimuli are almost identical and the target will show signs of emotional disturbance.
What is extinction?
It occurs when the CS is "not" reinforced via the US. Most experts believe that the CR is not eliminated, but suppressed, or what is generally called "inhibited." If the target is given a rest, the CR will sometimes reappear, although it will be weaker, a phenomena often called "spontaneous recovery." In operant conditioning, this connotes that reinforcement is withheld and eventually the behavior will be extinguished (eliminated). Ignoring is often a common method of extinction.
What is John B. Watson associated with?
The Little Albert experiment.
What is the Little Albert experiment.
Loud sound (Unconditioned Stimulus) -> Fear (Unconditioned Response) Natural response.

Rat (Neutral Stimulus) + Loud sound (Unconditioned Stimulus)-> Fear (Unconditioned Response) During pairing them.

Rat (Conditioned Stimulus) -> Fear (Conditioned Response) Learning occurs. Notice how the response never changes.
What is chaining?
A behavioristic term referring to a chain or sequence of behaviors in which one response renders a cue that the next response is to occur. For example, when you are writing a sentence and place a period at the end of the sentence, it is a cue that the next letter will be an uppercase letter. It is really just a series of operants joined together by reinforcers.
Whose principles are behavior modification strategies based heavily on?
Skinnerian principles (instrumental, operant conditioning)
Whose principles are behavior therapy based heavily on?
Pavlovian principles (classical, respondent conditioning)
Who is Neal Miller?
His first studies demonstrated that animals could indeed be conditioned to control autonomic processes. He a Banuazizi showed that by utilizing rewards, rats could be trained to alter heart rate and intestinal contractions. Prior to this experiment, it was thought that automatic or "autonomic" bodily processes could not be controlled. Today, counselors often use the technique of biofeedback to help clients control autonomic responses.
Who was Edward Thorndike?
He postulated the "law of effect," which is also known as "trial and error learning." This theory assumes that satsifying associations related to a given behavior will cause it to be "stamped in," while those associated with annoying consequences are "stamped out." Practice, per se, does not ensure effective learning. The practice must yield a reward.
What was the significance of the Little Albert experiment?
It showed that a phobia can be a learned behavior.
Who is Mary Cover Jones?
She demonstrated that "learning" could serve as a treatment for a phobic reaction.
Who was John Grinder?
He created Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) with John Bandler.
What is a nondirective counselor?
One who allows the client to explore thoughts and feelings with a minimum of direction.
What is a directive counselor?
One who leads the client to discuss certain topics and provides "direct suggestions" about how the client should think, act, or behave. Also called "active therapy" or "active-directive" therapy.
What is concreteness?
It is also known as "specificity." The counselor uses this principle in an attempt to eliminate vague language.
What is interpretation?
It is highly valued in analytic and psychodynamic modalities, although it is used in other schools of counseling. It is said to take place when the counselor uncovers a deeper meaning regarding a client's situation.
What is a biofeedback device?
A device that does not change the client, but provides the client and helper with biological information. A scale and mirror are two simple examples. In counseling, they are primarily used to teach cients to relax or control autonomic nervous system functions, such as blood pressure, pulse rate, or hand temperature.
What is congruence?
Also known as genuineness, the counselor who is is real and authentic They are not playing a role and not putting up a facade.
What is empathy?
It is the ability to understand the client's world and to communicate this to the client.
Who is Robert Carkhuff?
He is known for his creation of a five-point scale intended to measure empathy, genuineness, concreteness, and respect. The scale runs from 1 (poorest) to 5 (desirable).
What is something known as when it is added following an operant?
A positive reinforcer.
What is it called when something is taken away following an operant?
A negative reinforcer.
What is an operant?
Any behavior which is not elicited by an obvious stimulus. This covers most behaviors.
What are respondents?
It is the consequence of a known stimulus. For example, a dog salivating to food or the pupil in your eye enlarging when walk into a dark room.
What is higher order conditioning?
This occurs when a new stimulus is associated or "paired" with the CS and the new stimulus takes on the power of the CS.
What is an EMG?
Electromyogram. It is used to measure muscle tension.
What is an EEG?
Electroencephalogram. It is used to monitor brain waves.
What is an EKG?
Electrocardiogram. It is used to provide data on the heart.
Who was Edmund Jacobsen?
He was a physiologist who developed a relaxation technique in which muscle groups are alternately tensed and relaxed until the whole body is in a state of relaxation. Due to its simplicity, his Method rapidly became the darling of the behavior therapy movement.
What is GSR?
Galvanic Skin Response. It provides electrical skin resistance.
What is the Premack Principle?
It states that an efficient reinforcer is what the client himself or herself likes to do. Thus, in this procedure, a lower-probability behavior is reinforced by a higher-probability behavior. In other words, any HPB can be used as a reinforcer for any LPB.
What is continuous reinforcement?
It is when you continue to provide the reinforcement each time the target behavior occurs. It is not necessarily the most practical or the most effective
What is intermittent reinforcement?
Most human behaviors are reinforced effectively by this principle. In this format, the target behavior is reinforced only after the behavior manifests itself several times or for a given time interval. Also called "partial reinforcement," or thinning.
What is thinning?
Also called intermittent reinforcement, it literally indicates that the behavior is only reinforced a portion of the time.
What is the interval with regard to intermittent or partial reinforcement?
The interval is based on time rather than the number of responses since in this society, we use the phrase "time interval." A fixed interval, for example, would be getting paid the same amount once per month even if the amount of work varies.
What is the ratio with regard to intermittent or partial reinforcement?
The ratio is based on the number of responses. A fixed ratio, for example, would be giving a child an M&M for each 5 math problems she completes.
What does the term "fixed" mean with regard to reinforcement schedules?
It implies that the reinforcement always takes place after a fixed time or number of responses.
What does the term "variable" mean with regard to reinforcement schedules?
It implies that an average number of responses or time may be used.
What is the most difficult intermittent schedule to extinguish?
Variable ratio.
What is the most ineffective intermittent schedule?
Fixed interval.
What does SUDS stand for?
Subjective Units of Distress Scale, used in systematic desensitization. Ranges from 0 (totally relaxed) to 100 (most anxiety-producing state a client can imagine).
What is the Yerkes-Dodson Law?
It asserts that a moderate amount of arousal actually improves performance.
What is secondary reinforcement?
It occurs when a stimulus which accompanies a primary reinforcer takes on reinforcement properties of its own. The most popular = money.
What is covert processing?
It is a term which means that the behavior is not observable. It is usually a thought or visualization which the client imagines.
What is in vivo treatment?
The direct treatment of an overt, or observable, behavior.
What is a back-up reinforcer?
It is an item or an activity which can be purchased using tokens. They are often unconditioned.
What is aversive conditioning?
Like Antabuse, it pairs an aversive, somewhat unpleasant stimulus to reduce an unfavorable behavior.
What is behavioral rehearsal?
Role-playing combined with a hierarchy of situations in which the client is ordinarily nonassertive. The counselor might also switch roles and model assertive behavior to the client.
What is fixed role therapy?
It refers to the treatment model created by psychologist George A. Kelly. In this approach, the client is given a sketch of a person or fixed role. He or she is instructed to read the script at least three times a day and to act, think, and verbalize like the person in the script. It is considered quite systematic and has been called the "psychology of personal constructs" after his work of the same name.
Who is George A. Kelly?
He is credited with fixed role therapy and the "psychology of personal constructs."
What is the order for systematic desensitization?
1) relaxation training; 2) construction of anxiety hierarchy; 3) desensitization in imagination, and; 4) in vivo desensitization.
What is interposition?
It is another term for desensitization in imagination. It is technically a perceptual term which implies that one item conceals or covers another.
What is sensate focus?
It is a form a behavioral sex therapy developed by William H. Masters and Virginia Johnson of St. Louis, MO. This approach relies on counterconditioning. A couple is told to engage in touching and caressing (to lower anxiety levels) on a graduated basis until intercourse is possible.
Who is Wilhelm Reich?
He felt that repeated sexual gratification was necessary for the cure of emotional maladies.
What was Reich's Orgone Box?
It was a device the client would sit in to increase orgone life energy.
What is conditioned reflex therapy?
Created by Andrew Salter, it set the stage for modern assertiveness training.
Who was Andrew Salter?
He is credited with conditioned reflex therapy. Some called him the Father of Behavior Therapy.
What is covert sensitization?
The client would instructed to imagine an unpleasant image and would then be instructed to imagine a relief scene such as an enjoyable feeling when the negative stimulus is replaced with something positive.
What is Implosive Therapy?
The brainchild of T. G. Stampfl, it is always conducted using the imagination and sometimes relies on psychoanalytic symbolism.
What is flooding?
It usually occurs when the client is genuinely exposed to the feared stimulus. It is also called "deliberate exposure with response prevention." It can be extremely effective in cases of agoraphobia and OCD.
Who is T. G. Stampfl?
He is credited with creating Implosive Therapy.
Why do behavior therapists shy away from punishment?
The effects of punishment are usually temporary and it can teach aggression. B. F. Skinner felt that after the punishment was administered, the behavior would manifest itself once again. Positive measures are seen as more effective than punishment. If punishment is used, remember that it does not case the person (or other animal, for that matter) to unlearn the behavior, and it should be used along with positive reinforcing measures.
Why empathy versus sympathy?
Sympathy often implies pity, while accurate empathy is the ability to experience another person's subjective experience.
What is EDMR?
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, a technique created by Francine Shapiro to deal with traumatic memories. It was accidentally discovered when she noticed that disturbing memories began to abate when she was moving her eyes back and forth.
Who is Francine Shapiro?
She is credited with developing EMDR.
What is attending?
It refers to behaviors on the part of the counselor which indicate that he or she is truly engaged in active listening skills. Examples would be good eye contact or the old standby, "umhum."
Who is Robert R. Carkhuff?
He suggested a "scale for measurement" in regard to "empathic understanding in interpersonal processes." Level 1: Not attending or detracting significantly from the client's verbal and behavioral expressions; Level 2: Subtracts noticeable affect from the communication; Level 3: Feelings expressed by the client are basically interchangeable with the client's meaning and affect; Level 4: Counselor adds noticeably to the client's affect; Level 5: Counselor ads significantly to the client's feeling, meaning, even in the client's deepest moments. He wrote "Helping and Human Relations" in 1969.
What is logotherapy?
Healing through meaning. paradoxical intention is implemented by advising the client to purposely exaggerate a dysfunctional behavior in imagination. For example, a person with OCD might be instructed to wash his or her hands 51 times per day instead of the usual 45 times.
What is existentialism?
It is considered a humanistic form of helping in which the counselor helps the client discover meaning in his or her life by doing a deed (e.g., an accomplishment), experiencing a value (e.g., love), or suffering (e.g., Frankl discovered that even being held hostage in a concentration camp could not take away his dignity). It rejects analysis and behaviorism for being deterministic and reductionistic. This viewpoint developed as a reaction to the analytic and behavioral schools and stresses growth and self-actualization. Individuals have choices in their lives and one cannot blame others or childhood circumstances for a lack of fulfillment.
Who is Epictetus?
He is often quoted in regard to REBT. He was a stoic philosopher from the first century A.D. He said, "Men are disturbed not by things, but of the view which they take of them." This captures the major premise of REBT.
Who was Albert Ellis?
He is credited with creating REBT (formerly called RET).
What has existential therapy been criticized on?
It has been criticized for being too vague regarding techniques and procedures. It is more of a philosophy of helping than a grab bag of specific intervention strategies. Critics charge that it is not a systematic approach to treatment. The behaviorist assert that it is abstract and not scientific. The approach rejects traditional diagnosis and assessment procedures.
What has behavior therapy been criticized on?
It has been criticized on the grounds that it is reductionistic, simplistic, and does not deal with underlying causes.
What do existentialists primarily focus on?
They focus on the client's perception in the here and now. The focus is on what the person can ultimately become. The present and even the future are emphasized. The key to change is seen as self-determination.
Who is Buber?
He is credited with the I-Thou relationship.
What is the I-Thou relationship?
It asserts that the relationship is horizontal. A horizontal relationship assumes equality between two persons. Conversely, in a vertical relationship, the counselor is seen as the expert.
What do existentialists think about empathy?
They stress nonthreatening empathy as necessary for successful therapy.
Who is Yalom?
An existentialist, he is noted for his work in group therapy. In his book, "Love's Executioner," he reveals his approach to treatment with some of his most intriguing clients.
Who is Fritz Perls?
The father of Gestalt therapy.
Who is Albert Ellis?
He pioneered REBT.
Who is Arthur Janov?
He is noted for his Primal Scream Therapy.
Who is Aaron T. Beck?
His cognitive therapy resembles REBT.
What are the three worlds the existentialists speak of?
The Umwelt, Mitwelt, and the Eigenwelt.
What is the Umwelt World?
The physical/biological world, in existentialism.
What is the Mitwelt World?
The relationship world, in existentialism. (Think mi = my; my wife, my brother, my son, etc.)
What is the Eigenwelt World?
The identity world, in existentialism. (sounds kind-of like "identity")
What did Frankl's experience in Nazi concentration camps teach him?
He learned that you can't control the environment, but you can control your response. He felt that suffering would be transformed into achievement and creativity.
What do existential counselors emphasize?
They emphasize free choice, decision, and will.
What is noogenic neurosis?
A term used by logotherapists, it is the frustration of the will to meaning. The counselor assists the client to find meaning in life so the client can write his or her own life story by making meaningful choices. When exploring the meaning of life, some anxiety is normal. Moreover, death is not seen as an evil concept, but rather an entity which gives meaning to the process of life.
What is phenomenology?
It refers to the client's internal personal experience of events.
What is ontology?
It is the philosophy of being and existing. The metaphysical study of life experience.
Who is William Glasser?
He is the Father of Reality Therapy.
What is Rational Imagery?
It is a technique used by REBT therapists in which the client is to imagine that he or she is in a situation which has traditionally caused emotional disturbance. The client then imagines changing the feelings via rational, logical, and scientific thought.
What is Rational Behavior Therapy or Rational Self-Counseling?
Created by psychiatrist Maxie C. Maultsby, Jr., who studied with Albert Ellis, this approach relies on REBT; however, the client performs a written self-analysis. He claims the technique is well-suited to problems of substance abuse and it is highly recommended as a method of multicultural counseling.
Who is Maxie C. Maultsby, Jr.?
He is credited with creating Rational Behavior Therapy or Rational Self-Counseling.
What has Reality Therapy incorporated?
It has incorporated control theory, later referred to as choice theory.
Within Reality Therapy what is control theory, later referred to as choice theory?
Control theory/choice theory believes that the only behavior we can control is own and that our best chance to control our environment/goals is by our own behavior.
What does the abbreviation BCP mean?
It means that perception controls our behavior.
What is control or choice theory?
It asserts that the only person whose behavior we can control is our own. According to this theory, our behavior is our best attempt to control our world to satisfy our wants and needs.
What is rolfing?
It is not a traditional form of talk therapy, but rather a type of deep muscle massage which is assumed to have an impact on the person's emotional state.
What role does the client's childhood play in choice/reality therapy?
According to choice/reality therapy, it may have contributed to the problem, but the past is never really considered to be the problem.
What is paraphrasing?
It is when a client's thoughts and feelings are restated in the counselor's own words.
What is contracting?
It is done with a client in a verbal or written manner and is favored by behavior therapists. In reality therapy, a plan is created to help the client master his or her own target behaviors.
When the past is discussed in Reality Therapy, what is the focus on?
Successful behaviors. Glasswer believes that dwelling on past failures can reinforce a negative self-concept or what reality therapists have termed the "failure identity."
What is Glasser's position on mental illness?
He felt that diagnostic labels give clients permission to act sick or irresponsible. Reality Therapy has little use for the formal diagnostic process, or what is known in clinical circles as "nosology." He rejected this traditional medical model of disease.
What is nosology?
The diagnostic process of creating diagnostic labels.
What role does the reality therapist used with the client?
The role of a friend who asks what is wrong. Unlike the detached psychoanalyst, the reality therapist literally makes friends with the client. This is the first of eight steps utilized in this model. Step 7 is refusing to use punishment.
What book popularized Glasser's theory in educational circles?
"Schools Without Failure."
What is the final step in Glasser's eight steps of Reality Therapy?
The final step asserts that the client and counselor be persistent and never give up. Even when the client wants to give up, the therapist does not. Glasser's theory has been criticized on the basis that it is too simplistic.
According to Glasser, what might be a positive addiction?
He stressed that people can be addicted to positive behaviors and this helps to instill self-confidence. A positive addiction must be a noncompetitive activity which can be performed alone for about one hour each day, such as jogging. Moreover, the person can see that performing the activity will lead to personal improvement. Lastly the person needs to be capable of performing the activity without becoming self-critical.
What is summarization?
The counselor is bringing together a number of ideas. It also could deal strictly with the material in a single session of counseling. It constitutes a "synthesis" regarding the general tone or feeling of the helping process. It is really the ability to condense the material to capture the essence of the therapeutic exchange.
What is a success identity?
The individual who possesses this feels worthy and significant to others. Identity is a person's most important psychological need.
What is a failure identity?
A person who is irresponsible, and thus frustrated in an attempt to feel loved and worthwhile, will develop this and a faulty perception of reality. The client is encouraged to assume responsibility for his or her own happiness.
In REBT, how is the client taught to change cognitions?
Self-talk and internal verbalizations. The credo is simple: Talk sense to yourself. When you change your thinking, you can change your life.
What philosopher is most closely related to REBT?
Epictetus, a stoic philosopher who suggested we feel the way we think.
What is the ABC theory of personality with regard to REBT?
A = activating event; B = belief system; C = emotional consequence; D = disrupting the irrational behavior at B; E = a new emotional consequence or "an effective new philosophy of life"
What is bibliotherapy?
It is the use of books or writings pertaining to self-improvement.
What is musterbation?
A term coined by Ellis, it occurs when a client uses too many shoulds, oughts, or musts in his or her thinking. Also called "absolutist thinking."
What does Ellis feel is at the core of emotional disturbance?
Irrational thinking at point B (belief system).
What is catastrophizing?
Awfulizing and terriblizing. It would occur at point B, the belief system, in the ABC model of personality.
What is cognitive restructuring?
The act of changing the client's mode of thinking.
What is imaginal disputation?
REBT therapists may use imagery to urge clients to behave in different patterns.
Who is the father of Rational-Behavior Therapy?
Maxie c. Maultsby, Jr.
How does Cognitive Therapy differ from REBT?
In Cognitive Therapy, dysfunctional ideas are too absolute and broad, though not necessarily irrational.
What therapy is Aaron T. Beck credited with creating?
He is credited with creating Cognitive Therapy.
What is a metacognition?
It is sometimes used as a term to describe an individual's tendency to be aware of his or her own cognitions and/or cognitive abilities.
Who is Donald Meichenbaum?
He is a cognitive therapist most closely associated with his concept of stress inoculation. His approach was termed "Self-Instructional Therapy."
What is stress inoculation?
It has three phases. First, the client is involved in an "educational phase" where the client is taught to monitor the impact of inner dialogue on his behavior. Next, clients are taught to rehearse new self-talk. This is the "rehearsal phase." Finally, the "application phase" is where new inner dialogue is attempted during actual stress-producing situations.
Who is Eric Berne?
He created Transactional Analysis (TA). He wrote "Games People Play" and "What Do You Say After You Say Hello?"
What is Transactional Analysis?
In the 1950's Eric Berne began to develop his theories of Transactional Analysis. He said that verbal communication, particularly face to face, is at the centre of human social relationships and psychoanalysis.

His starting-point was that when two people encounter each other, one of them will speak to the other. This he called the Transaction Stimulus. The reaction from the other person he called the Transaction Response.

The person sending the Stimulus is called the Agent. The person who responds is called the Respondent.

Transactional Analysis became the method of examining the transaction wherein: 'I do something to you, and you do something back'.
Who is Gerald Corey?
He suggested that the marriage of Gestalt and TA was made in therapeutic heaven because Gestalt Therapy emphasized the affective exploration that was missing from TA, which was too intellectual.
What three ego states does TA assert?
The Parent, the Adult, and the Child.
What is the Parent ego state?
It is composed of values internalized from significant others in childhood. It is also known as the "exteropsyche" and it bears a very strong resemblance to Freud's superego.
What is structural analysis?
When a counselor analyzes out of which ego state a client is primarily operating.
What is second order structural analysis?
When a counselor analyzes an ego state within an ego state (e.g., Critical Parent or Nurturing Parent)
What are the two functions in the Parent ego state?
The Nurturing Parent and the Critical Parent.
What is the Nurturing Parent?
It is sympathetic, caring, and protective.
What is the Critical Parent?
It is the master of teh shoulds, oughts, and musts.
What is the Prejudicial Parent?
Occasionally another component of the Parent ego state, it is opinionated with biased not based on fact.
What is the Adult ego state?
It corresponds to Freud's ego state. It is also known as the "neopsyche." It is rational, logical, and does not focus on feelings. It processes facts.
What are the three functions in the Child ego state?
The Natural Child, the Adapted Child, and the Little Professor.
What is the Child ego state?
Sometimes called the "archeopsyche," it resembles Freud's id.
What is the Natural Child?
It is what the person would be naturally: spontaneous, impulsive, and untrained.
What is the Little Professor?
It is creative and intuitive. It acts on hunches, often without the necessary information.
What is the Adapted Child?
It learns how to comply to avoid a parental slap on the hand.
What are injunctions?
They are messages we receive from parents to form the ego states and they cause us to make certain early life decisions.
What is a healthy communication transaction in TA?
It occurs where vectors of communication run parallel. It is a "complementary" transaction in which you get an appropriate, predicted response.
What is a crossed transaction (TA)?
It occurs when vectors from a message sent and a message received do not run parallel. For example, if I send a message from my Adult to your Adult and you respond from your Child to my Child. These can result in a deadlock of communication and/or a host of hurtful feelings.
Who is Tom Harris?
He wrote "I'm OK -- You're OK"
According to Tom Harris, what are the four basic life positions?
1) I'm not OK -- You're OK: a self-abusive person or masochistic personality; 2) I'm OK -- You're OK: successful; 3) I'm OK -- You're not OK: adolescent delinquents and adult criminals tend to be this; such persons feel victimized and are often paranoid; 4) I'm not OK -- You're not OK: pessimistic; could result in schizoid behavior
What is Karpman's triangle?
He suggested that only three roles are necessary for manipulative drama: persecutor, rescuer, and victim.
What is a game in TA?
It is a transaction with a concealed motive. They prevent honest, intimate discussion, and one player is always left with negative feelings. They have a predictable outcome as a result of ulterior transactions, which occurs when a disguised message is sent. The higher the number of degree of game, the greater the hurt.
What therapeutic technique is common to both TA analysts and behaviorists?
What is a racket?
When a client manipulates others to experience a childhood feeling, this results in a racket.
What is the life script?
It is a person's ongoing drama which dictates how a person will live his or her life. Claude Steiner has written extensively on these. Some popular scripts include the never scripts (a person who never feels he or she will succeed), the always scripts (individuals who will always remain a given way), the after scripts (that result in a way a person believes he or she will behave after a certain event occurs), open ended scripts (person has no direction or plan), until scripts (client is not allowed to feel good until a certain accomplishment or event arrives), desirable scripts/less desirable scripts
Who is Claude Steiner?
He wrote extensively on life scripts. He suggests three basic unhealthy scripts: no love, no mind, and no joy.
What is script analysis?
The process of ferreting out the client's script in TA.
What are ulterior transactions?
They contain hidden transactions as two or more ego states are operating at the same time.
What is the "top dog"?
In Gestalt Therapy, it is seen as the Critical Parent portion of the personality which is very authoritarian and quick to use shoulds and oughts.
What is the "underdog"?
In Gestalt Therapy, it is seen as weak, powerless, passive, and full of excuses.
Who are Truax and Mitchell?
They assert that an effective counselor is authentic and genuine, not phony; gives positive regard through acceptance; and has accurate empathic understanding.
Who is Gazda?
He suggested a "Global Scale for Rating Helper Responses" which ranked from 1.0 to 4.0.
What does NLP stand for?
Bandler and Grinder's Neurolinguistic Programming.
What is Bandler and Grinder's Neurolinguistic Programming?
This model makes some incredible claims. NLP practitioners use reframing and anchoring.
What is reframing?
The counselor uses this technique to help the client to perceive a given situation in a new light so as to produce a new emotional reaction to it (e.g., a glass of water is not half empty; it is really half full).
What is anchoring?
The counselor uses this technique to evoke an emotional state via an outside stimulus such as a touch or a sound or a specific bodily motion. This is similar to classical conditioning or the concept of a posthypnotic suggestion. A client with a phobia of cats, for example, might squeeze his left arm when he came in contact with a cat and this would bring out an emotion other than fear.
What is the "playing the projection" technique?
In this technique, the counselor literally asks you to act like this person you dislike.
What timeframe is Gestalt therapy most focused on?
This therapy is most focused on the here and now.
What is the exaggeration experiment?
The Exaggeration exercise consists of exaggerating a movement or gesture repeatedly to intensify feelings attached to behavior to make inner meanings clearer. For example - they will be asked to make a frown or a facial grimace.
What is successive approximation?
An operant behavior modification term, it suggests that a behavior is gradually accomplished by reinforcing "successive steps" until the target behavior is reached. It is also known as "shaping."
What is the DOT?
The Dictionary of Occupational Titles, which lists 20,000 job titles.
What is the OOH?
The Occupational Outlook Handbook, published by the US Department of Labor, which attempts to depict projected job trends.
What is psychodrama?
It incorporates role-playing into the treatment process. It was invented by Jacob L. Moreno, who first coined the term "group therapy." Gestalt therapists emphasize experiments and exercises.
What is retroflection within Gestalt therapy?
It is the act of doing to yourself what you really wish to do to someone else.
What does "Gestalt" mean?
A form, figure, or configuration as a whole. It can also imply that the integrated whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
How many layers of neurosis does Perls suggest must be peeled away to reach emotional stability?
Five layers of neurosis.
What are the five layers of neurosis, according to Perls?
The person has a phony layer, a phobic layer (fear that others will reject his or her uniqueness), an impasse layer (the person feels stuck), the implosive layer (willingness to expose the true self), and the explosive layer (person has relief due to authenticity).
What is "unfinished business"?
In Gestalt therapy, they are unexpressed emotions. When an unexpressed feeling of resentment, rage, guilt, anxiety, etc. interferes with present situations and causes difficulties, it is known as this.
What are the three most common principles relating to gestalt psychology?
1) insight learning; 2) motivated people tend to experience tension due to unfinished tasks, and thus they recall unfinished activities better. Thus, if you sincerely care about the outcome of a task, you will have better recall of that task if it remains incomplete than if finished; 3) the illusion of movement can be achieved via two or more stimuli which are not moving, such as a neon sign which has a moving arrow.
What does Gestalt Therapy emphasize?
Therapy emphasize? It emphasizes awareness in the here and now and dream work.
Within Gestalt Therapy what are "games of dialog"?
Top dog, underdog, empty chair technique
What do Gestalt Therapy critics assert that it fails to emphasize?
They feel it often fails to emphasize cognitive concerns and is anti-intellectual. It is also felt to be too confrontational.
Describe counseling in the 1950s.
In this decade, counseling became the key guidance function. It marked a golden age for developmental psychology.
Describe counseling in the late 1960s.
In this time, the field was inundated with competing psychotherapies.
Describe counseling in the 1970s.
In this decade, biofeedback, behavior modification, and crisis hotlines became popular.
Describe counseling in the 1980s.
In this decade, professionalism (e.g., licensing and improvement in professional organizations) was evident).
What are the three names for the school of counseling developed by Carl R. Rogers, Ph.D.?
He created nondirective counseling, which became Client-Centered Therapy, which became the Person-Centered approach. It could also be referred to as "self theory."
What is Rogers' approach characterized as?
His approach is characterized as existential or humanistic (a.k.a. third force psychology).
What skills must an effective counselor possess in the Person-Centered approach?
They must possess empathy, congruence, genuineness, and demonstrate unconditional positive regard to create a desirable "I-Thou relationship." This produces a "climate for growth."
How did Rogers view man?
He viewed man as positive when he develops in a warm, accepting, trusting environment. The individual is good and moves toward growth and self-actualization.
How does Berne view man?
Messages learned about self in childhood determine whether person is good or bad, though intervention can change this script.
How does Freud view man?
He views man as deterministic and believes people are controlled by biological instincts. People are unsocialized, irrational, and driven by unconscious forces.
How does Ellis view man?
He feels that people have a cultural/biological propensity to think in a disturbed manner but can be taught to use their capacity to react differently.
How does Perls view man?
He feels that people are not bad or good, but have the capacity to govern life effectively as "whole." People are part of their environment and must be viewed as such.
How does Glasser view man?
He feels that individuals must strive to meet basic physiological needs and the need to be worthwhile to self and others. The brain as a control system tries to meet needs.
How does Adler view man?
He feels that man is basically good; much of behavior is determined via birth order.`
How does Jung view man?
He feels that man strives for individuation or a sense of self-fulfillment.
How does Skinner view man?
He feels that humans are like other animals: mechanistic and controlled via environmental stimuli and reinforcement contingencies; not good or bad; no self-determination or freedom.
How does Bandura view man?
He feels that the person produces and is a product of conditioning.
How does Frankl view man?
He feels that the existential view of man is that humans are good, rational, and refrain from freedom of choice.
How does Williamson view man?
He feels that through education and scientific data, man can become himself. Humans are born with potential for good or evil. Others are needed to help unleash positive potential. Man is mainly rational, not intuitive.
With what therapy is Rogers credited?
He is credited with Person-Centered therapy.
With what therapy is Berne credited?
He is credited with Transactional Analysis.
With what therapy is Freud credited with?
He is credited with Psychoanalysis.
With what therapy is Ellis credited with?
He is credited with Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy.
With what therapy is Perls credited with?
He is credited with Gestalt therapy.
With what therapy is Glasser credited with?
He is credited with Reality Therapy.
With what therapy is Adler credited with?
He is credited with Individual Psychology.
With what therapy is Jung credited with?
He is credited with Analytic Psychology.
With what therapy is Skinner credited with?
He is credited with Behavior Modification.
With what therapy is Bandura credited with?
He is credited with Neo-behavioristic therapy.
With what therapy is Frankl credited with?
He is credited with Logotherapy.
With what therapy is Williamson credited with?
He is credited with Trait-factor therapy.
What is congruence?
It occurs when external behavior matches an internal response or state. This is also called genuineness. It is a condition where the counselor is very aware of his or her own feelings and accurately expresses this to the client. Rogers felt this was the most important element for an effective helping climate.
What three conditions are essential in Person-Centered therapy for client change to occur?
Genuineness, Empathy, and Unconditional Positive Regard.
What is Caplan's psychodynamic model of mental health consultation?
It is when the consultant does not see the client directly, but advises the consultee (i.e., the individual in the organization who is receiving the consultant's services). This model is interesting because it recommends that the consultant -- not the counselor/consultee -- be ethically and legally responsible for the client's welfare and treatment.
What is Edgar Schein's "doctor-patient" model of consultation?
In this model of consultation, the consultant is paid to diagnose the problem (i.e., the consultee is not certain what it is) and prescribe a solution. The focus is on the agency or organization, not the individual client.
What is process consultation?
The focus is not on the content of the problem, but rather the process used to solve the problems.
What is the purchase of expertise model of consultation?
In this model, the consultee says: "Here's the problem; you fix it." This is similar to the doctor-patient model, except that the consultee knows what is wrong.
What is triadic consultation?
In this model, the consultant works with a mediator to provide services to a client.
What kind of setting does consultation tend to take place in, as opposed to a clinical setting?
It tends to take place in a work/organizational setting. Counselors tend to focus more on a person or group, while consultants tend to focus more on issues. Also, in consultation work, empathy is overshadowed by genuineness and respect.
What is verbal tracking?
It is attending behavior that is verbal.
What is social power or social influence related to in a counselor (a.k.a. human relations core)?
Expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness.
What is competence?
It is how the counselor perceives himself or herself.
What are three key areas that cause problems for a counselor's self-image?
Competence, power, and intimacy. These factors are related to a counselor's social influence.
Who was Gerard Egan?
He stressed that clients are indeed more open and expressive with counselors who seem genuine. He is well-known for his books who teach a systematic approach to effective helping.
What is accomplishment-competence
A feeling that an accomplishment (e.g., helping abate a client's depression) can impact one's feelings of competence, or the client's perception of the helper's expertise.
What are Ivey's three postulated types of empathy?
Basic, subtractive, and additive.
What is basic empathy?
The counselor's response in this type of empathy is on the same level as the client's.
What is subtractive empathy?
In this type of empathy, the counselor's behavior does not completely convey and understanding of what has been communicated.
What is additive empathy?
This type of empathy is considered most desirable because it adds to the client's understanding and awareness.
Who created a program to help counselors learn accurate empathy?
Robert Carkhuff and Truax. Carkhuff says, "all helping is for better or worse" and "no helpee is left unchanged by any helping interaction."
What is the social influence core?
Empathy, positive regard (or respect), and genuineness. This is not the human relations core.