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80 Cards in this Set

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what has hapened to people, institutions, or countries in the past.
Historical process
Refers to the interactions among people, places, and events throughout history.
Linear view of history
Christianity presents this type of view. A linear view of history believes that history has a definite beginning and will reach a definite end. For Christians history originates with God and moves toward the goal that he has established. Beyond this, history is the stage on which God will reveal himself. Christianity teaches that history is building to God's appointed end.
Shelf showing. Occurs through God's involvement with individuals and nations in the real world of historical events. God uses both the faithful and his enemies to reveal his truth to humans.
The historian's Toolbox 5 elements: When a historian is attempting to understand a document or other peice on historical material he:
1. Places the document or other evidence within its context.
2. Has knowledge of the existing literature and range of interpretations which may impact the understanding of the evidence being studied.
3. Searches for the earliest available sources.
4. Is aware of her or his own biases and predispositons, which may influence understanding the evidence.
5. Questions and requestions conclusions.
Institutions of complex cultures are
family, politics, educations, economics, and religion. Changes in a culture's physical creations and technology may radically alter the less concerte elements of the culture. Cultures seldom exist in isolation from one another.
The culture within any church group operates
may have more influence on the practices, beliefs, and morals of followers than do denominational ties.
Christianity and it's background
Christanity developed from Judaism and shares much with it. Their histories are intertwined, and their faiths have similar views of God, revelation, creation, human duty to God and other humans, sin, salvation, and final judgment.
Founding fathers
The Jews believed that God established a covenant/testament with Abraham. This contract became the basis of the Jewish religion. IT promised that, in return for faithfulness, Abraham's descendants would become a great nation, would enjoy God's special favor, and would be the means by which all the families of the earth would be blessed.
Abraham and his people were originally called Hebrews. This name changed as God's special relationship with Abraham was passed on to his son.
Means he who strives with God.
Israelites eventually migrated to Egypt where they became slaves. This slavery resulted in the Exodus, a formative event in Jewish history. This refers th the Israelite's departure from Egypt under the leadership of Moses and the group's subsequent wandering in the wilderness and arrival at the "Promised Land". This area, roughly encoumpases the modern nation of Israel was promised to the JEws as a reward for their faithfulness to God.
COnsists of the commandments God Told the Jews to keep.
Yellow fever symptoms
fever, black vomitus, jaundice

Aedes mosquito with human/monkey reservoir
Councilman bodies (acidophilic) in liver
Prophets information
Prophets assumed special authority because they claimed to speak for God. They criticized both the religion and culture of their day usually by claiming they were recaling a straying people to keeping the comvenant of Moses. In reality, they introduced several new concepts to the JEwish faith. They made it a faith rooted in history and introduced the idea tht history is the stage of God's activity. They grounded true relition in ethics, meaning their religion would always have an effect on how a beliveer treats other people.
Israel the place and it's significance
The Prophets held that Israel was not special to God because God loved her above others, but because she was chosen to be a witness about God to all nations.
strong belief that there was only one God
When did Judeaism become radically monotheistic?
During the Babylonian Captivity
What happened during the BAbylonian CAptivity?
Judeaism became radically monotheistic. The idea of observing the Sabbath also arose. The Torah was written which became the guide to JEwish faith, practice, and life.
The sabbath was the last day of the week (Saturday). IT was a time of rest and worship. NO work or business could be conducted.
The helenistic (Greek) Era ran from 332 to 167 B.C. The introduction of Greek culture throughout the region occurred. Greek gynasiums and statues to Greek gods appeared in many towns. Greek language, law, and philosophy became well known in the region.
Good news (of Jesus)
A system of religious worship. One such example is Emperor Augustus. HE came to be viewed as god incarnate (made flesh). Citizens had to make an offering to emperor. IF a citizen refused he was seen as a traitor.
myster religions
Groups of faith that originated in Greece and the eastern areas of the empire. These religions included the cults of Dionysus, Isis, Magna Mater, and Mithra as well as the Eleusinian mysteries. They promised salvation through the participation of believers in secret ceremonise or rights.
Believed that God was a powerful energy that created and sustained the world. God was the reason, logos, that was seen in the order and beauty of the world. Human duty was to live "naturally" or according to the law of the universe which was the embodiment of Divine Reason.
god was the world reason or logos.
Great competitor with Christiam worldview. Comes from the greek word gnosis which means knowledge. SEceret knowledge revealed to a few was a key to Gnosticism. Those people who received this secret knowledge were freed from bondage and made spiritually alive. MAtter was evil, spirit was good. Being trapped in the physical world caused humans to lose their ability to live forever. Because the material world was evil, it could not have been created by a good God. THe world was instead created by the DEmiurge, a lersser God who cam out of the supreme, unknowable, and good God. THis religion was eventually rejected.
means Christ in Greek
capsid symmetry?
ss + linear

Day of the Lord
The period at the end of time when God would judge the just and unjust from all nations and would create a new age in which God's rule would be eternal and supreme. This age was referred to as the kingdom of God.
Kingdom of God
The end of time when there is a new age in which God's rule is eternal and supreme. Follows God's judgement of the just and unjust.
Small but wealthy ruling party closely associated with the temple and JErusalem. THey controlled the important office of the high priest and had great political influence in the Sanhedrin. They taught a strict observance of the Torah as it was given to Moses and would premit no new doctrines. To them life after death considted of semi-lifeless ghosts confined to the underworld known as sheol. THey were very active in having Jesus crucified, possibly because they saw him as a threat to the Roman rule and their high position.
the Jewish ruling body
Cheif competitors of Sadducees and were largely artisans and merchants. They sought to protect JEwish purity by strictly following the Law in every area of life. The pharisees used a large body of oral interpretation of the Law to apply it to day to day situations. They also accepted such new ideas as life after death and resurrection.
Another group which rose from the rejection of helleninization. THey retreated to the desret where they lived in communes. They practiced a strict obsercnace of the Law and waited for the overthrow of Rome by the coming MEssiah. They believed that when the kingdom arrived God would establish a new covenant with them because they were the true Israel.
involved in JEwish society They were an underground political party that actively sought to overthroe Rome by force, and they expected the Messiah to be a warrior king who would lead the rebellion against the Romans.
(a hierarch of professional government officials) to administer the empire, created a single body of law for the whole realm, met the monetary needs of the empire, gave local regions considerable freedom, and undertook projects to help the needy throughout the empire.
people who worked the land and paid rent
pax romana
Roman peace
Edict of Milan
When Constantine assumed the throne he issued this edict which gave religious toleration to all groups, including Christians throughout the realm. Although he wasn't baptized until he died, he used Christian teachings as the basis of many of his policies. He promoted Christian causes and saw Christianity as a force that could unite the empire. He established the new capital at Byzantium which he named Constantinopal.
Faith has a number of aspects
IT is the idea of believing in God. Faith has to do with believing that Jesus has some special status, identity, or authority and would be able to heal early Christians. The basic idea of faith is trust.
What do we mean when we say we believe in God?
This is widely understod to mean something like I think that there is a God, but I cannot demonstrate it with any degree of certainty.
The basic Christian attitude to proofs for the existence of God can be set out as followed:
1. The existence of God is something that reason cannot prove.
2. Certain excellent reasons may be put forward for suggesting that God exists. These do not, however, count as proofs.
3. Faith is about trust in God, rather than just agreeing that God exists.
Thomas Aquinas argues proof of God.
What we observe in the world for example its signs of ordering can be explained if God was its creator.He argues that the ordering of the world is the most convincing evidence of God's existence and wisdom. The first way begins from the onvervation that the world is in motion and ever changing. Aquinas thus argues for the existence of a single original cause of motion. This cause, is none other than God. He also has the theological arguement, which derives its name from tholos meaning "purpose or goal" Aquinas notes that he world shows signs of intelligent design. He cncludes that the source of this natural ordering must be God.
Pascal says
You cannot argue someone into the Kingdom of God. The existence of God is not something that can be proved. Equally, it is not something that can be disproved.
FAith is beyod reason
The leter stresses that faith is not blind trust, it points out that the world is studed with evidence of God's existence and nature.
For Thomas Aquinas faith could be defined as
assent to divine revelation. To believe in God is more than accepting that God exists. IT is about TRUSTING that God.
Faith is fundamntaly
Three points relating to Luther's idea of faith
1. Faith has a personal, rather than purely historical reference.
Even siners are prefectly capable of trusting the historical details of the gospels. But these facts of themselves are not adequate for true Christian faith. Saving faith has to do primarily with believing and trusting that Christ was orn for us personally, and has accomplished for us the work of salvation.
2. Faith concerns trust in the promises of God.
Faith is not merely believing that something is true, it is being prepared to rely act upon that belief and rely upon it.
3. Faith unites the believer to Christ. it is the response of the whole person of the believer to God which leads in turn to the real and personal presence of Christin the believer.
One counter arguement if God is god why is there suffering and pain in the world?
God did not create huma beings as automatons, rather he created us as individuals who are capable of responding to God. Good and evil are thus necessary presences in the world, in order that informed meaningful human development may take place. One of the most influential arguements against this idea is that God shares in the sufering of the word with his crucifixion. It is through suffering that Christians learn to turn the final outcome of their actions over to God, who can then perfect them in glory.
Who is God?
Christians hold that God is relealed supremely and finally in Christ.
What do Christians believe about this God?
Christians believe in a God who is "the Father Almighty, Creator of Heaven and Earth.
Analogies in the Bible
The Bible uses many analogies to speak about God. The Lord is my shepherd and Father are 2 popular ones.
What is meant by Christians when they say the Lord is my shepherd.
1. There is the idea of the loving care of the shepherd of his flock. The shepherd was committed to his flock on a full time basis.
2. Thinking of God as a shepherd confirms God's guidance. The shepherd knows where food and water are to be found and guides the sheep to them.
3. The image of God as shepherd tels us something about ourselves. We are like the sheep, incapable of looking after ourselves, and continually going astray.
4. Just as the shepherd looks for his sheep so God came to find us in our lostness and brings us home.
Why not use more abstract or conceptual ways of thinkingabout God.?
The human mind is not capable of understanding the full brilaiance of God.
Calvin says?
Calvin insists that God cannot be comprehended by the human mind. What is known about God is known by revelation; and that revelation is adapted to our capacity as finite, fallen human creatures.
How is father an ideal representative image for God?
1. fathers bring their children into existence just as god is our originator.
2. Fathers care for their children. IF even human fathers want to give their children good things, how much more must our heavenly father want to give good things to those who ask for them in prayer.
3. FAthers are male
God is neither male or female. for sexuality is attributed to created order which cannot be said to correspond directly to any such polarity within the creator God.
The basic idea expressed of a personal god is:
A God with whom we can have a personal relationship which is analogous to that which we could have with another human being. The Great biblical theme of promise and fulfillment is ultimately based upon a personal relationship, in that God promises certain quite different things to certain individuals.
What do we mean when we say god is almighty?
it means God is all powerful and capable of doing anything. Humans may fail, God remains faithful.
Can God do anything?
The commonsense answer is yes. If God is almighty, God can do anything. Yet Christian theology insists that God's omnipotence is to be set within the context of God's nature--of a righteous and faithful God, whose promises are to be trusted.
Greek word for god
Greek word meaning word.
Theology in its most basic form means
theos -Greek word for God.
Logos- greek word meaning word
SO. Theology is talking about god.
4 periods of growth
1. Apostolic
2. Patristic
3. Medieval
4. Modern
An apostle had direct influence or interaction with Jesus. There is a direct encounter.
A disciple is a group of people close to jesus. A disciple is in Jesus inner circle. There were 12 disciples.
Apostolic period
33-100 C.E. This period ended around 100 because the apostles had all passed away by this time.
Patristic period
100-500. These are the church fathers. It wasn't that men were the only influential people, but rather it was that a woman's place in society was not in the public eye at this time. The fall of rome occurs in 500 and this ends the patristic period.
Medieval period
500-1500. Means middle period between the fall of rome and the modern period. America was discovered around the end of this period and ideas began to change. Nationalism arose during this time. They saw themselves in solidarity with one another their loyalties became first to their own nation and then to Rome.
Ecumunical council of Chalcedon
Significant because the church states doctrine of Trinity in words of Nicene creed came from this. The nicene creed finalized and made definitive statements of the church
Martin Luther
Was a Catholic priest who had undergone a spiritual journey and wanted to see the Catholic church revise itself. In Oct 1957 he wrote a thesis which he thought the Church should consider as reform. He nailed it to the door. HE was arrested and charged as a heretic. Excommunicated he spent time in jail. His friends busted him out and he escaped and split the Church between Catholic and Protestant.
Modern period
1500-present. Greek is still dominant. there are lots of African theologians.
Known as the most important person in the patristic period. He does the most to shape the thought of the Church. He was a convert after listening to Ambrose. He returned to Africa to join a monastery instead he was ordained a priest and became bishop of Hippo. He had a dominant voice in shaping position of Catholic Church on several key issues.
That area of philosophical inquiry that asks how do we know what we know?
This is a multi layer question. What's oing on in us with this process of learning? What are the sources of inquiry? What criteria do we use to determine if we should recognize and accept it?

3 sources of Theological authority
The bible
Old testament, new testament, apocrypha.
Old testament
The people we evnetually come to know as Jews their tribal name and ethnical identity was Hebrew. In the earliest history they were a wandering nomatic tribe whose tribal name and language was Hebrew. The scriptures of the old testament was hebrew and it records from beginning to end God, the earch, their history ect. It records their entire history and all events which happened to them.
Man Christians think this should be included. Many do not. This is a prechristian understanding so it's out of a Jewish understanding. MAny protestants do not use it.
New testament
all written in Greek. Everything in Christian scripture reflects God is revealed and mediated through the life of Jesus. Includes variety of types of literature. Gospels which are biography of the life of jesus. Acts which is story of early church
epistles writen to address early church issues
and revelation - apocolypse which deals with the view of the end of time.