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Geological time

The number of years ago that rocks and landforms where made

Molten

Liquid

Magma

Molten rock

Crust

A thin outer layer between 6-90 km thick, formed of solid rock.


The crust is thicker beneath the continents and thinner beneath the oceans

What metals form the metallic core of the earth?

Nickel and iron

Mantle

About 2900km thick


Rocks are in a thick , hot molten state- magma


Magma has a plastic consistency that allows it to move and flow slowly


Denser than crust

Outer core

2000km thick very dense but still molten

Inner core

1200km thick


Extremely hot


Might be extremely dense metallic ball

Igneous rock

Rocks which form when magma cools

How do igneous rocks form? Use the diagram to help you:

1. The release of pressure causes magma to travel up the lines of weakness



2. The magma forces the rocks in the crust said and forms an igneous intrusion . This means that the magma takes the place of the existing rock inside the crust



3. Sometimes the magma flows into the surface as lava. This forms extrusive igneous rock

Intrusive

Forced into

Lava

Magma that comes onto the earths surface

Igneous intrusion

Igneous rocks that form below the earths surface

Extrusive igneous rock

Igneous Rocks that form above the earths surface

Extrusive

Forced out

What are the main characteristics of igneous rocks?

All igneous rocks are crystalline. This is because molten magma consists of a mixture of many elements such as silica, iron and magnesium. When magma cools these elements combine to form crystals of minerals. If the magma cools slowly the Chrystal's are large. If the magma cools slowly the crystals are microscopic



All igneous rocks are massive. This means they form in one big mass and do not have layers

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

Explain the formation and characteristics of metamorphic rock:

Are rocks that have been changed by heat or pressure or both. The rocks that change into metamorphic rocks can be igneous or sedimentary rock



What are the uses of metamorphic rocks?

Contain metals and minerals that form as a result of heat generated during the metamorphosis. Mining



Very hard and good for roads



Some rocks are thinly layered like slate and can be used for roofs and floor tiles



Crystalline : decoration

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

Explain the formation and characteristics of metamorphic rock:

Are rocks that have been changed by heat or pressure or both. The rocks that change into metamorphic rocks can be igneous or sedimentary rock



What are the uses of metamorphic rocks?

Contain metals and minerals that form as a result of heat generated during the metamorphosis. Mining



Very hard and good for roads



Some rocks are thinly layered like slate and can be used for roofs and floor tiles



Crystalline : decoration

What is the rock cycle ?

The cycle of rock formation, erosion of rocks, deposition of sediments and formation of new rocks

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

Explain the formation and characteristics of metamorphic rock:

Are rocks that have been changed by heat or pressure or both. The rocks that change into metamorphic rocks can be igneous or sedimentary rock



What are the uses of metamorphic rocks?

Contain metals and minerals that form as a result of heat generated during the metamorphosis. Mining



Very hard and good for roads



Some rocks are thinly layered like slate and can be used for roofs and floor tiles



Crystalline : decoration

What is the rock cycle ?

The cycle of rock formation, erosion of rocks, deposition of sediments and formation of new rocks

Batholith

Largest type of igneous rock



Forms deeps in the earths crust and the magma cools slowly to form rocks like granite

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

Explain the formation and characteristics of metamorphic rock:

Are rocks that have been changed by heat or pressure or both. The rocks that change into metamorphic rocks can be igneous or sedimentary rock



What are the uses of metamorphic rocks?

Contain metals and minerals that form as a result of heat generated during the metamorphosis. Mining



Very hard and good for roads



Some rocks are thinly layered like slate and can be used for roofs and floor tiles



Crystalline : decoration

What is the rock cycle ?

The cycle of rock formation, erosion of rocks, deposition of sediments and formation of new rocks

Batholith

Largest type of igneous rock



Forms deeps in the earths crust and the magma cools slowly to form rocks like granite

Laccolith

Mushroom shapes structure which forms when magma forces the overlying strata upwards

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

Explain the formation and characteristics of metamorphic rock:

Are rocks that have been changed by heat or pressure or both. The rocks that change into metamorphic rocks can be igneous or sedimentary rock



What are the uses of metamorphic rocks?

Contain metals and minerals that form as a result of heat generated during the metamorphosis. Mining



Very hard and good for roads



Some rocks are thinly layered like slate and can be used for roofs and floor tiles



Crystalline : decoration

What is the rock cycle ?

The cycle of rock formation, erosion of rocks, deposition of sediments and formation of new rocks

Batholith

Largest type of igneous rock



Forms deeps in the earths crust and the magma cools slowly to form rocks like granite

Laccolith

Mushroom shapes structure which forms when magma forces the overlying strata upwards

Lopolith

Similar to laccoliths but the weight of the overlying starts causes the lopolith to sink into a saucer shaped structure.

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

Explain the formation and characteristics of metamorphic rock:

Are rocks that have been changed by heat or pressure or both. The rocks that change into metamorphic rocks can be igneous or sedimentary rock



What are the uses of metamorphic rocks?

Contain metals and minerals that form as a result of heat generated during the metamorphosis. Mining



Very hard and good for roads



Some rocks are thinly layered like slate and can be used for roofs and floor tiles



Crystalline : decoration

What is the rock cycle ?

The cycle of rock formation, erosion of rocks, deposition of sediments and formation of new rocks

Batholith

Largest type of igneous rock



Forms deeps in the earths crust and the magma cools slowly to form rocks like granite

Laccolith

Mushroom shapes structure which forms when magma forces the overlying strata upwards

Lopolith

Similar to laccoliths but the weight of the overlying starts causes the lopolith to sink into a saucer shaped structure.

Sill

Forms when magma intrudes horizontally between layers of rock along a bedding plane

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

Explain the formation and characteristics of metamorphic rock:

Are rocks that have been changed by heat or pressure or both. The rocks that change into metamorphic rocks can be igneous or sedimentary rock



What are the uses of metamorphic rocks?

Contain metals and minerals that form as a result of heat generated during the metamorphosis. Mining



Very hard and good for roads



Some rocks are thinly layered like slate and can be used for roofs and floor tiles



Crystalline : decoration

What is the rock cycle ?

The cycle of rock formation, erosion of rocks, deposition of sediments and formation of new rocks

Batholith

Largest type of igneous rock



Forms deeps in the earths crust and the magma cools slowly to form rocks like granite

Laccolith

Mushroom shapes structure which forms when magma forces the overlying strata upwards

Lopolith

Similar to laccoliths but the weight of the overlying starts causes the lopolith to sink into a saucer shaped structure.

Sill

Forms when magma intrudes horizontally between layers of rock along a bedding plane

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

Dyke

Forms when magma intrudes vertically across layers of rocks

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

Explain the formation and characteristics of metamorphic rock:

Are rocks that have been changed by heat or pressure or both. The rocks that change into metamorphic rocks can be igneous or sedimentary rock



What are the uses of metamorphic rocks?

Contain metals and minerals that form as a result of heat generated during the metamorphosis. Mining



Very hard and good for roads



Some rocks are thinly layered like slate and can be used for roofs and floor tiles



Crystalline : decoration

What is the rock cycle ?

The cycle of rock formation, erosion of rocks, deposition of sediments and formation of new rocks

Batholith

Largest type of igneous rock



Forms deeps in the earths crust and the magma cools slowly to form rocks like granite

Laccolith

Mushroom shapes structure which forms when magma forces the overlying strata upwards

Lopolith

Similar to laccoliths but the weight of the overlying starts causes the lopolith to sink into a saucer shaped structure.

Sill

Forms when magma intrudes horizontally between layers of rock along a bedding plane

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

Dyke

Forms when magma intrudes vertically across layers of rocks

Volcanic pipe

Deep, carrot shaped pipe of solidified magma.


Often kimberlite which has diamonds

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

Explain the formation and characteristics of metamorphic rock:

Are rocks that have been changed by heat or pressure or both. The rocks that change into metamorphic rocks can be igneous or sedimentary rock



What are the uses of metamorphic rocks?

Contain metals and minerals that form as a result of heat generated during the metamorphosis. Mining



Very hard and good for roads



Some rocks are thinly layered like slate and can be used for roofs and floor tiles



Crystalline : decoration

What is the rock cycle ?

The cycle of rock formation, erosion of rocks, deposition of sediments and formation of new rocks

Batholith

Largest type of igneous rock



Forms deeps in the earths crust and the magma cools slowly to form rocks like granite

Laccolith

Mushroom shapes structure which forms when magma forces the overlying strata upwards

Lopolith

Similar to laccoliths but the weight of the overlying starts causes the lopolith to sink into a saucer shaped structure.

Sill

Forms when magma intrudes horizontally between layers of rock along a bedding plane

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

Dyke

Forms when magma intrudes vertically across layers of rocks

Volcanic pipe

Deep, carrot shaped pipe of solidified magma.


Often kimberlite which has diamonds

Monolith

Very large igneous intrusion , usually a batholith. When this intrusion is exposed at the earths surface, it forms a huge area of domed rock

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

Explain the formation and characteristics of metamorphic rock:

Are rocks that have been changed by heat or pressure or both. The rocks that change into metamorphic rocks can be igneous or sedimentary rock



What are the uses of metamorphic rocks?

Contain metals and minerals that form as a result of heat generated during the metamorphosis. Mining



Very hard and good for roads



Some rocks are thinly layered like slate and can be used for roofs and floor tiles



Crystalline : decoration

What is the rock cycle ?

The cycle of rock formation, erosion of rocks, deposition of sediments and formation of new rocks

Batholith

Largest type of igneous rock



Forms deeps in the earths crust and the magma cools slowly to form rocks like granite

Laccolith

Mushroom shapes structure which forms when magma forces the overlying strata upwards

Lopolith

Similar to laccoliths but the weight of the overlying starts causes the lopolith to sink into a saucer shaped structure.

Sill

Forms when magma intrudes horizontally between layers of rock along a bedding plane

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

Dyke

Forms when magma intrudes vertically across layers of rocks

Volcanic pipe

Deep, carrot shaped pipe of solidified magma.


Often kimberlite which has diamonds

Monolith

Very large igneous intrusion , usually a batholith. When this intrusion is exposed at the earths surface, it forms a huge area of domed rock

What are landforms associated with igneous rocks?

Granite domes: formed from batholiths that have eroded away



Mesas, buttes and conical hills

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

Explain the formation and characteristics of metamorphic rock:

Are rocks that have been changed by heat or pressure or both. The rocks that change into metamorphic rocks can be igneous or sedimentary rock



What are the uses of metamorphic rocks?

Contain metals and minerals that form as a result of heat generated during the metamorphosis. Mining



Very hard and good for roads



Some rocks are thinly layered like slate and can be used for roofs and floor tiles



Crystalline : decoration

What is the rock cycle ?

The cycle of rock formation, erosion of rocks, deposition of sediments and formation of new rocks

Batholith

Largest type of igneous rock



Forms deeps in the earths crust and the magma cools slowly to form rocks like granite

Laccolith

Mushroom shapes structure which forms when magma forces the overlying strata upwards

Lopolith

Similar to laccoliths but the weight of the overlying starts causes the lopolith to sink into a saucer shaped structure.

Sill

Forms when magma intrudes horizontally between layers of rock along a bedding plane

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

Dyke

Forms when magma intrudes vertically across layers of rocks

Volcanic pipe

Deep, carrot shaped pipe of solidified magma.


Often kimberlite which has diamonds

Monolith

Very large igneous intrusion , usually a batholith. When this intrusion is exposed at the earths surface, it forms a huge area of domed rock

What are landforms associated with igneous rocks?

Granite domes: formed from batholiths that have eroded away



Mesas, buttes and conical hills

What are the landforms associated with sedimentary rocks?

Plateaux and plains



Ridges and valleys

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

Explain the formation and characteristics of metamorphic rock:

Are rocks that have been changed by heat or pressure or both. The rocks that change into metamorphic rocks can be igneous or sedimentary rock



What are the uses of metamorphic rocks?

Contain metals and minerals that form as a result of heat generated during the metamorphosis. Mining



Very hard and good for roads



Some rocks are thinly layered like slate and can be used for roofs and floor tiles



Crystalline : decoration

What is the rock cycle ?

The cycle of rock formation, erosion of rocks, deposition of sediments and formation of new rocks

Batholith

Largest type of igneous rock



Forms deeps in the earths crust and the magma cools slowly to form rocks like granite

Laccolith

Mushroom shapes structure which forms when magma forces the overlying strata upwards

Lopolith

Similar to laccoliths but the weight of the overlying starts causes the lopolith to sink into a saucer shaped structure.

Sill

Forms when magma intrudes horizontally between layers of rock along a bedding plane

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

Dyke

Forms when magma intrudes vertically across layers of rocks

Volcanic pipe

Deep, carrot shaped pipe of solidified magma.


Often kimberlite which has diamonds

Monolith

Very large igneous intrusion , usually a batholith. When this intrusion is exposed at the earths surface, it forms a huge area of domed rock

What are landforms associated with igneous rocks?

Granite domes: formed from batholiths that have eroded away



Mesas, buttes and conical hills

What are the landforms associated with sedimentary rocks?

Plateaux and plains



Ridges and valleys

What are landforms associated with metamorphic rock?

They don't form particular landforms but can be very old rock formations forming plateau regions and can also be the resistant layers in escarpments

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock

What are the common types of igneous rocks in South Africa ?

Granite


Basalt


Dole rite

What are the most common mechanically formed sedimentary rock?

Conglomerate: pebbles cemented together by fine grained sediments



Sandstone: medium sized sediments like sand that accumulate in layers on the sea bed

Explain the examples of organically formed sedimentary rock:

Limestone: forms from the shells of marine organisms . The soft inner parts of the animals decompose but their shells remain on the seabed. The shells are made of calcium carbonate or lime. Layers of crushed shells become consolidated to form layers of limestone.



Coal: coal is carbon which comes from trees and plants, other rocks compressed these over millions of years to create coal

What are the uses of sedimentary rock?

Make useful building materials



Cement manufacturers heat dolomite and shale then crush them to cement



Clay is soft shale which people use for building

Metamorphic rock

Rock which has been changed by hear or pressure or both

Explain the formation and characteristics of metamorphic rock:

Are rocks that have been changed by heat or pressure or both. The rocks that change into metamorphic rocks can be igneous or sedimentary rock



What are the uses of metamorphic rocks?

Contain metals and minerals that form as a result of heat generated during the metamorphosis. Mining



Very hard and good for roads



Some rocks are thinly layered like slate and can be used for roofs and floor tiles



Crystalline : decoration

What is the rock cycle ?

The cycle of rock formation, erosion of rocks, deposition of sediments and formation of new rocks

Batholith

Largest type of igneous rock



Forms deeps in the earths crust and the magma cools slowly to form rocks like granite

Laccolith

Mushroom shapes structure which forms when magma forces the overlying strata upwards

Lopolith

Similar to laccoliths but the weight of the overlying starts causes the lopolith to sink into a saucer shaped structure.

Sill

Forms when magma intrudes horizontally between layers of rock along a bedding plane

What are the crystals in basalt very hard to see?

It is an extrusive volcanic rock that solidified at the earths surface , usually when lava poured out into the surface to form a plateau. Magma cools Re crystallizes very quickly once it has reached earths surface

Dyke

Forms when magma intrudes vertically across layers of rocks

Volcanic pipe

Deep, carrot shaped pipe of solidified magma.


Often kimberlite which has diamonds

Monolith

Very large igneous intrusion , usually a batholith. When this intrusion is exposed at the earths surface, it forms a huge area of domed rock

What are landforms associated with igneous rocks?

Granite domes: formed from batholiths that have eroded away



Mesas, buttes and conical hills

What are the landforms associated with sedimentary rocks?

Plateaux and plains



Ridges and valleys

What are landforms associated with metamorphic rock?

They don't form particular landforms but can be very old rock formations forming plateau regions and can also be the resistant layers in escarpments

Escarpment

A steep slope along the edge of a plateau

What are the uses of igneous rocks?

Contain valuable metals like copper, iron and gold. So people can mine these



The hardness of them makes them very good building materials. Roads, buildings and grave surfaces are granite

Plateau

A flat topped landform that has been uplifted

Sedimentary rock

Rock which forms from layers of compressed sediments

Sediments

Pieces of rock, clay and other substances from eroded rocks which accumulate at the bottom of a lake or sea

Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed mechanically?

Most sediments are formed this way.



Rivers, ice and wind are constantly eroding the earths crust. This wears down the broken pieces of rock into smaller pieces, bits of clay and soluable substances.


The rivers, wind or ice carry these bits of broken down rock along and eventually deposit them in the sensor in a lake where they build up as sediments

Strata

Layers of rock

Bedding plane

Plane separating layers of rock

Fossils

The remains of a dead plant or animal which has been preserved in rock