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14 Cards in this Set

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Give the modern and ancient versions of the selection problem.

Ancient: So many Wildebeest, so little time!


Modern: Being struck in traffic.

Describe the selection problem.

Competing functional (motivational) system:




At any point in time, which system should be permitted to direct motor output (behaviour)?


- Spatially distributed


- Processing in parallel


- All act through final common motor path

What is encephalisation?

Competition between cortical & sub-cortical loops.

What are the individual units sensitive to specific sub-sets of sensory data?

- Energy balance (levels of circulating, levels of nutrients, external presence/absence of food)




- Threat (rat - objects appearing in upper visual field)

Who came up with an architectural solution to the selection problem?

Snaith & Holland (1990)

What was Snaith & Holland's (1990) solution?

Central selection architecture - control engineering.




- Multiple competing functional systems


- Segregated loops:


Phasic excitatory input


Tonically active inhibitory output


- Selective disinhibition: a mechanism for selection

What are the two types of selective disinhibituation?

Qualitative model = PR




Quantitative analysis = Kevin Gurny

What happens in action selection of rat foraging?

Motivations:


- Hungry: 24hrs food deprived


- Frightened: placed in open area




Behaviour:


- Initially keeps close to walls & corners


- Collects food


- Returns to corner to eat




Major objective:


To perform sustained sequences of "purposive" behaviour in a 'natural' environment

What was Brook's ideology, and what is drawn from it?

Control architecture of the robot decomposes into 'behavioural units' (wall-seek, corner-seek, can-pick-up), rather than functional units (perception, planning, motor control).




Within each 'unit' there are sensory, integrative & motor-command components.




Certainly no central 'world model' into which all available sensory data is compiled.

What happens in Robot Action Selection?

Motivation:


Hunger


Fear




5 Behavioural Sub-systems:


Wall seek


Wall follow


Can seek


Can pick-up


Can deposit




8 Infra-red sensors detect:


Walls


Corners


Cans




Gripper sensors detect:


Presence/absence of can

What are some different regions of BG that select between different sorts of competitors?

- Motivation/emotion


- Cognition: ideas/memories/plans


- Sensorimotor: stimuli/actions

What is the human condition?

New brain options compete with old brain options.

What are some disorders of selection?

Phobias:


Trigger stimuli harmless => uncontrollable fear




Anxiety-panic Stress:


Situations not dangerous => incapacitating anxiety




PTSD:


Situations not dangerous => trigger stimuli




Addictions:


Explicit knowledge of detrimental consequences => powerless in the face of sensory stimuli associated with food, drink and sex




Head vs. Heart:


Situations where we should know better

What are some selection disorders of BG?

Parkinson's:


Akinesia => inability to disinhibit (select) any channel


Bradykinesia => partial ability to disinhibit




Schizophrenia - ADHD - Tourette's:


Dysfunctional 'soft-switching'


Winners win small, losers win small


Vulnerable to interrupt




Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - Drug Addiction:


Dysfunctional 'hard-switching'


Winners win big, losers win big


Resistant to interrupt - preservation