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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Give the modern and ancient versions of the selection problem.

Ancient: So many Wildebeest, so little time!

Modern: Being struck in traffic.

Describe the selection problem.

Competing functional (motivational) system:

At any point in time, which system should be permitted to direct motor output (behaviour)?

- Spatially distributed

- Processing in parallel

- All act through final common motor path

What is encephalisation?

Competition between cortical & sub-cortical loops.

What are the individual units sensitive to specific sub-sets of sensory data?

- Energy balance (levels of circulating, levels of nutrients, external presence/absence of food)

- Threat (rat - objects appearing in upper visual field)

Who came up with an architectural solution to the selection problem?

Snaith & Holland (1990)

What was Snaith & Holland's (1990) solution?

Central selection architecture - control engineering.

- Multiple competing functional systems

- Segregated loops:

Phasic excitatory input

Tonically active inhibitory output

- Selective disinhibition: a mechanism for selection

What are the two types of selective disinhibituation?

Qualitative model = PR

Quantitative analysis = Kevin Gurny

What happens in action selection of rat foraging?


- Hungry: 24hrs food deprived

- Frightened: placed in open area


- Initially keeps close to walls & corners

- Collects food

- Returns to corner to eat

Major objective:

To perform sustained sequences of "purposive" behaviour in a 'natural' environment

What was Brook's ideology, and what is drawn from it?

Control architecture of the robot decomposes into 'behavioural units' (wall-seek, corner-seek, can-pick-up), rather than functional units (perception, planning, motor control).

Within each 'unit' there are sensory, integrative & motor-command components.

Certainly no central 'world model' into which all available sensory data is compiled.

What happens in Robot Action Selection?




5 Behavioural Sub-systems:

Wall seek

Wall follow

Can seek

Can pick-up

Can deposit

8 Infra-red sensors detect:




Gripper sensors detect:

Presence/absence of can

What are some different regions of BG that select between different sorts of competitors?

- Motivation/emotion

- Cognition: ideas/memories/plans

- Sensorimotor: stimuli/actions

What is the human condition?

New brain options compete with old brain options.

What are some disorders of selection?


Trigger stimuli harmless => uncontrollable fear

Anxiety-panic Stress:

Situations not dangerous => incapacitating anxiety


Situations not dangerous => trigger stimuli


Explicit knowledge of detrimental consequences => powerless in the face of sensory stimuli associated with food, drink and sex

Head vs. Heart:

Situations where we should know better

What are some selection disorders of BG?


Akinesia => inability to disinhibit (select) any channel

Bradykinesia => partial ability to disinhibit

Schizophrenia - ADHD - Tourette's:

Dysfunctional 'soft-switching'

Winners win small, losers win small

Vulnerable to interrupt

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - Drug Addiction:

Dysfunctional 'hard-switching'

Winners win big, losers win big

Resistant to interrupt - preservation