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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Purpose of the Scrum Guide

a framework for developing and sustaining complex products

Definition of Scrum

A framework within which people can address complex adaptive problems, while
productively and creatively delivering products of the highest possible value.

Characteristics of Scrum

- Lightweight
- Simple to understand
- Difficult to master

Scrum is versus What Scrum is Not

Scrum is not a process or a technique for building products; rather, it is a
framework within which you can employ various processes and techniques.

Scrum Theory

empirical process control theory, or empiricism.

What is Empiricism?

knowledge comes from experience and making decisions based on what is known. Scrum
employs an iterative, incremental approach to optimize predictability and control risk.

Three pillars of empirical process control

transparency, inspection, and adaptation

Explain Transparency

process be defined by a common standard so observers share a
common understanding of what is being seen.

Examples of Transparency


- A common language referring to the process must be shared by all participants; and,
- Those performing the work and those accepting the work product must share a common
definition of “Done”.

Explain Inspection

Scrum users must frequently inspect Scrum artifacts and progress toward a Sprint Goal to detect undesirable variances. Their inspection should not be so frequent that inspection gets in the way of the work. Inspections are most beneficial when diligently performed by skilled inspectors at the point of work.


If an inspector determines that one or more aspects of a process deviate outside acceptable
limits, and that the resulting product will be unacceptable, the process or the material being
processed must be adjusted. An adjustment must be made as soon as possible to minimize
further deviation.

Four formal events for inspection and adaptation

- Sprint Planning
- Daily Scrum
- Sprint Review
- Sprint Retrospective

Make up of a Scrum Team

Product Owner, the Development Team, and a Scrum Master

Characteristics of a Scrum Team

self-organizing and cross-functional.

What is a self-organizing team?

teams choose how best to
accomplish their work, rather than being directed by others outside the team

What is a cross-functional team?

all have competencies needed to accomplish the work without depending on others not
part of the team.

Describe the Product Owner

The Product Owner is responsible for maximizing the value of the product and the work of the
Development Team. How this is done may vary widely across organizations, Scrum Teams, and

Who is responsible for managing the Product Backlog?

The Product Owner

What is involved in Product Backlog Management?

- Clearly expressing Product Backlog items;
- Ordering the items in the Product Backlog to best achieve goals and missions;
- Optimizing the value of the work the Development Team performs;
- Ensuring that the Product Backlog is visible, transparent, and clear to all, and shows what
the Scrum Team will work on next; and,
- Ensuring the Development Team understands items in the Product Backlog to the level

What the Product Owner is and what the Product Owner is not?

- The Product Owner may do the above work, or have the Development Team do it. However, the
Product Owner remains accountable.

- The Product Owner may represent the
desires of a committee in the Product Backlog, but those wanting to change a Product Backlog
item’s priority must address the Product Owner.

Characteristics of a Development Team

- They are self-organizing. No one (not even the Scrum Master) tells the Development Team
how to turn Product Backlog into Increments of potentially releasable functionality;
- Development Teams are cross-functional, with all of the skills as a team necessary to create
a product Increment;
- Scrum recognizes no titles for Development Team members other than Developer,
regardless of the work being performed by the person; there are no exceptions to this rule;
- Scrum recognizes no sub-teams in the Development Team, regardless of particular domains
that need to be addressed like testing or business analysis; there are no exceptions to this
rule; and,
- Individual Development Team members may have specialized skills and areas of focus, but
accountability belongs to the Development Team as a whole.

Optimal Team Size


Product Owner and Scrum Master are not included unless they are executing work

Characteristics of an Optimal Development Team

small enough to remain nimble and large enough to
complete significant work within a Sprint

How does the Scrum Master serve the Product Owner?

- Finding techniques for effective Product Backlog management;
- Helping the Scrum Team understand the need for clear and concise Product Backlog items;
- Understanding product planning in an empirical environment;
- Ensuring the Product Owner knows how to arrange the Product Backlog to maximize value;
- Understanding and practicing agility; and,
- Facilitating Scrum events as requested or needed.

How does the Scrum Master serve the Development Team?

- Coaching the Development Team in self-organization and cross-functionality;

- Helping the Development Team to create high-value products;
- Removing impediments to the Development Team’s progress;

- Facilitating Scrum events as requested or needed; and,
- Coaching the Development Team in organizational environments in which Scrum is not yet fully adopted and understood

How does the Scrum Master serve the Organization?

- Leading and coaching the organization in its Scrum adoption;
- Planning Scrum implementations within the organization;
- Helping employees and stakeholders understand and enact Scrum and empirical product development;
- Causing change that increases the productivity of the Scrum Team; and,
- Working with other Scrum Masters to increase the effectiveness of the application of Scrum in the organization

What does a time-boxed event mean?

Every event has a maximum

Ways that a sprint event can end

1. Event hits the time box

2. The purpose of the event has been achieved.

What is the heartbeat of Scrum?


What is a sprint?

a time-box of one month or less during which a “Done”, useable,
and potentially releasable product Increment is created. Sprints best have consistent durations
throughout a development effort.

When does a new sprint start?

A new Sprint starts immediately after the conclusion of the
previous Sprint.

Guidelines during a sprint

- No changes are made that would endanger the Sprint Goal;
- Quality goals do not decrease; and,
- Scope may be clarified and re-negotiated between the Product Owner and Development
Team as more is learned.

Max Sprint Time

1 month

Advantages of doing work in sprints

Enable predictability by ensuring inspection and adaptation of progress toward a Sprint Goal

Who cancel a sprint

Only the Product Owner can

Reasons to cancel a sprint

The Sprint goal becomes obsolete.

This might occur if the company changes direction or if market or technology conditions change.

Steps that occur when a sprint is cancelled

When a Sprint is cancelled, any completed and “Done” Product Backlog items are reviewed. If
part of the work is potentially releasable, the Product Owner typically accepts it. All incomplete Product Backlog Items are re-estimated and put back on the Product Backlog. The work done on them depreciates quickly and must be frequently re-estimated.

Max Duration for a Sprint Planning Meeting

a maximum of eight hours for a one-month Sprint.

Sprint Planning answers the following questions

1. What can be delivered in the Increment resulting from the upcoming Sprint?

2. How will the work needed to deliver the Increment be achieved?

What is the product backlog?

an ordered list of everything that might be needed in the product and is the single source of requirements of any changes to be made to the product.

In a product backlog, what are the things that the product owner is responsible for?

content, availability, and ordering

Can a product backlog be complete?

A product backlog is never complete

How long does a product backlog last?

As long as a product exists, its product backlog also exists

What must a product backlog have?

Product backlog items have the attributes of a description, order, estimate, and value

What influences can change a product backlog?

Changes in business requirements, market conditions, or technology may cause changes in the product backlog.

What happens during product backlog refinement?

PBI's are reviewed and refined

What percentage should refinement take?

Refinement usually consumes no more than 10% of the capacity of the Development team.

Who is responsible for all estimates?

The Development Team is responsible for all estimates

What does it mean a user story is "Ready"

1. Can be done w/i one sprint

2. Can be deemed for selection in sprint planning.

At least when should total work remaining be summed?

at least every sprint review

What is the sprint backlog?

- is the set of product backlog items selected for the sprint, plus a plan for delivering the product increment and realizing the sprint goal.

- a forecast by the development team about what functionality will be in the next increment and the work needed to deliver that functionality into a "done" increment

- makes visible all of the work that the development team identifies as necessary to meet the sprint goal.

What happens when new work is required?

The development team adds it to the sprint backlog

Who can only change the sprint backlog during a sprint?

Only the development team can change its sprint backlog during a sprint

How is progress tracked during a sprint?

By tracking the remaining work throughout the sprint

What is the increment?

The increment is the sum of all the product backlog items completed during a sprint and the value of the increments of all previosu sprints.

What is useable condition?

This means that the new increment must be "done"

When must an increment be done?

It must be in useable condition regardless of whether the product owner decides to actually release it

Who is responsible for keeping transparency?

The scrum master must work with the product owner, development team, and other involved parties to understand if the artifacts are completely transparent.

How can a scrum master detect incomplete transparency?

A scrum master can detect incomplete transparency by inspecting the artifacts, sensing patterns, listening closely to what is being said, and detecting differences between expected and real results.

What does a team do if done is not a convention of the development organization?

the development team of the scrum team must define a definition of "done" appropriate for the product.

How does team handle the definition of done when there are multiple scrum teams?

the development teams on all of the scrum teams must mutually define the definition of "done"

Characteristics of an increment?

Each increment is additive to all prior increments and thoroughly tested, ensuring that all increments work together.

Can I pick and choose from scrum?

Scrum exists only in its entirety and functions well as a container for other techniques, methodologies, and practices

input to the sprint planning meeting?

the product backlog, the latest product increment, projected capacity of the development team during the sprint, and past performance of the development team

The number of items selected from the product backlog for the sprint?

IT's solely up to the development team. ONly the development team can assess what it can accomplish over the upcoming sprint.

What is the sprint goal?

an objective that will be met within the sprint through the implementation of the product backlog, and it provides guidance to the development team on why it is building the increment

What is the sprint backlog?

The product backlog items selected for this sprint plus the plan for delivering them

What should happen by the end of the sprint planning meeting?

The development team should be able to explain to the product owner and scrum master how it intends to work as a self-organizing team to accomplish the sprint goal and create the anticipated increment

Daily scrum?

a fifteen minute tiem boxed event for the development team to synchronize activities and create a plan for the 24 hours.

Characteristics of the daily scrum?

is held at the same time and place each day to reduce complexity

What does the development team members explain at the daily scrum:

- What did I do yesterday that helped the development team meet the sprint goal?

- What will I do today to help the development team meet the sprint goal?

- Do I see any impediment that prevents me or the development team from the meeting the sprint goal?

Who is responsible for the daily scrum meeting?

The scrum master ensures that the development team has the meeting, but the development team is responsible for conduction the daily scrum. The scrum master teaches the development team to keep the daily scrum within the 15-minute time-box

Purpose of the daily scrums

improve communications, eliminate other meetings, identify impediments to development for removal, highlight and promote quick decision-making, and improve the development team's level of knowledge

What happens during the sprint review?

the scrum team and stakeholders collaborate about what was done in the sprint. Based on that and any changes to the product backlog during the sprint, attendees collaborate on the next things that cold be done to optimize value.

Why is the sprint review held?

to inspect the increment and adapt the product backlog if needed

How long is the sprint review meeting?

It's a four hour time-boxed meeting for one-month sprints

What is the result of the sprint review

is a revised product backlog that defines the probable product backlog items for the next sprint. The product backlog may also be adjusted overall to meet new opportunities

The sprint review includes the following elements

Attendees include the Scrum Team and key stakeholders invited by the Product Owner;
 The Product Owner explains what Product Backlog items have been “Done” and what has
not been “Done”;
 The Development Team discusses what went well during the Sprint, what problems it ran
into, and how those problems were solved;
 The Development Team demonstrates the work that it has “Done” and answers questions
about the Increment;
 The Product Owner discusses the Product Backlog as it stands. He or she projects likely
completion dates based on progress to date (if needed);
 The entire group collaborates on what to do next, so that the Sprint Review provides
valuable input to subsequent Sprint Planning;
 Review of how the marketplace or potential use of the product might have changed what is
the most valuable thing to do next; and,
 Review of the timeline, budget, potential capabilities, and marketplace for the next
anticipated release of the product.

What is the purpose of the sprint retrospective

is an opportunity for the scrum team to inspect itself and create a plan for improvements to be enacted

When does the sprint retrospective occur?

After the sprint review and prior to the next spring planning.

How long is the sprint retro?

a three-hour time-boxed meeting for one-month sprints

Scrum master's role in the retro?

The scrum master participates as a peer team member in the meeting from the accountability over teh scrum process

The purpose of the sprint retrospective

- Inspect how the last sprint went with regards to people, relationships, process, and tools

- Identify and order the major items that went well and potential improvements

- Create a plan for implementing improvements to the way the scrum team does it work

What happens during the sprint retro?

The scrum team plans ways to increase product quality by adapting the definition of "done" as appropriate

What should happen at the end of the sprint retro?

The scrum team should have identified improvements that it will implement in the next sprint


an ordered list of everything that might be needed in the product and is the single source of requirements for any changes to be to the product.

The scrum's artifacts represent?

work or value to provide transparency and opportunities for inspection and adaptatation

Duration of a Sprint once it begins?

Remains fixed, cannot be lengthened or shortened