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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Central Nervous System

complex of nerve tissues controlling the activities of the body; cns, specifically, brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System

the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord


specialized cells for the conduction of information

cell body

contains the nucleus and most organelles


conduct impulses away from cell body toward other neurons or effectors


extensions leading toward the cell body; brings signals to cell bodies from other neurons

myelin sheath

a fatty white substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, protecting them and speeding messages along

sensory neuron

take information to the CNS, have sensory receptors

completely embedded w/in the CNS; receives input from sensory and other interneurons and sends feedback back through motor neurons
motor neuron

takes messages from CNS t effector organs (muscles, glands or organs)

Describe the transmission of a nerve impulse along a neuron.

Sensory receptor transmits impulse to cord. Synapses with interneurons in cord (integration) and up to the brain. Transmitted to motor neuron. Motor neuron carries impulse to effector muscle.

What is resting potential? How is it maintained?

the amount of energy waiting to be used within a neuron; maintained by sodium potassium pumps which actively transport Na out of and K into a synapse

What is action potential?

a rapid change in polarity across an axonal membrane as a nerve impulse occurs; "all or nothing" phenomenon

List the membrane structures involved in an action potential and the role of each.

1. Sodium Gates- open first, Na flows down concentration gradient into an axon. Axon changes from negative to positive, "depolarize"

2. Potassium Gates- open 2nd, K flows down concentration gradient to outside axon. AP inside post synapse resumes negative charge.

refractory period

time during which sodium gates in a presynapse are unable to open, preventing backflow of synapses

Name 2 neurotransmitters.

ACl (acetycholine) and norepinepherine

synaptic cleft

a junction between 2 nerve cells through which neurotransmitters jump from synapse to synapse

Explain the transmission that takes place within a synapse.

one way transmission, from presynaptic to post synaptic; neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that cross from synapse through synaptic cleft and into the next neuron

Describe spinal nerves.

the spine extends from the base of the brain. White matter, myelinated, surrounds grey matter; takes messages to the brain. Grey matter, unmyelinated, takes messages back from the brain. Dorsal root and ganglion (sensory) stem from back of spine; ventral (motor) from in front.

Relate the following parts of the spinal cord: central canal, grey matter, and white matter.

the spinal cord has 3 layers. the innermost part is the central canal, center of "H" grey matter (unmyelinated cell bodies of neurons). the outer most part is called white matter, myelinated neurons.

Describe the reflex arc.

automatic responses to a stimulus

Receptor neurons ---> Sensory neurons ---> interneurons (integrate) ----> motor neuron ---> effector

Function of: ventricles

hollow interconnecting cavities in the brain that connect with the hollow central canal of the spinal cord; produce and hold cerebrospinal fluid, the substance that cushions and protects the CNS

Function of: brain stem

contains midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata

Function of: cerebrum

the largest portion of the brain in humans that receives sensory input, processes it, and commands voluntary motor responses

Function of: grey matter

contains brain's cell bodies of neurons; includes regions of the brain involved in muscle control and sensory perception

Function of: white matter (fibers)

connects grey matter through axons

Function of: cerebellum

receives sensory input from joints, muscles and other sensory pathways about position of body parts; maintains body posture

Function of: medulla oblongata

regulates vital functions (heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure) and contains the reflex centers (vomiting, coughing, sneezing, hiccuping, and swallowing)omit "limbic system and higher mental functions"

Explain the autonomic nervous system.

a part of the PNS subdivided categorically between the sympathetic "fight of flight" and the parsympethetic "rest and digest"; automatic and involuntary impulses

Name the 2 divisions of the autonomic nervous system and what they are responsible for.

*Sympathetic, "fight or flight"

*Parasympathetic, "rest and digest"