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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name the parts of the Nervous System
Parts of the Nervous System
The Nervous System has two parts what are they?
The Central Nervous System
The Peripheral Nervous System
What is the Central Nervous System made up of?
Spinal Cord
What is the Peripheral Nervous System made up of?
Motor and Sensory Nerves
The Autonomic Nervous system
Which specialized cells conduct information in the Nervous System?
Bundles of Neurons form thin cables called Neurons.
Electrical impulses travel along those nerves.
Where do the Neurons from the brain and spinal cord run to?
How do specialized Nerves cells speed up nerve impulses?
These specialized nerve cells wrap around the nerves forming and insulating layer called a Myelin Sheath.
What does the Myelin Sheath contain?
The myelin sheath contains gaps called Nodes, which allow the nerve impulses to jump from node to node in order to travel quickly.
Once the nerve impulse reaches the end a nerve cell what must it do?
It must cross the synapse in order for the message to continue.
What is a Synapse?
A synapse is a gap between neurons.
What happens if the nerve impulse can not 'jump' the synapse?
It is carried across the synapse by chemical messengers called Neurotransmitters.
What are Neurotransmitters made up of?
These are brain hormones like Serotonin, dopamine and acetylcholine.
What nutrients do we need good levels of to make adequate brain hormones?
B Vitamins
What happens when Serotonin is low?
We can feel depressed.
What is our reward system?
Dopamine is involved in our reward system.
What which brain hormone can be high in risk takers and gamblers.
What brain hormone is low in Parkinson's disease?
Which group of people are most effected by Parkinson's disease?
Elderly people.
Which part of the body is the control center of the body?
The Brain.
What % of weight does our brain account for?

And what % of energy does it consume?
About 2%

About 20% Energy.
Tell me about the Cerebrum?
The Cerebrum is divided into 2 hemispheres - right and left.
What is each hemisphere of the Cerebrum covered by and what is it called by?
An outer grey layer called the Cerebral Cortex.
What function does the Cerebrum handle?
Sophisticated functions such as processing visual images and thinking.
What structure lies beneath the rear of the Cerebrum and what is its purpose?
It controls movement.
What lies beneath the Cerebellum?
The Brain Stem.
What purpose does the brain stem serve?
The Brain Stem controls life processes such as digesting, breathing, and blood pressure.
Where is the Hypothalamus located and what is its function?
The hypothalamus is within the brain stem and is the center for the emotions and instincts.
The hypothalamus is responsible for keeping everything in balance - or homeostasis.
List what the hypothalamus controls:
Body Temp
Water balance
Sleep cycles
Sexual satisfaction
Anger and aggression
It also regulates the Autonomic nervous system which regulates pulse, BP, breathing etc.,
How does the hypothalamus controls all the functions it is responsible for?
The hypothalamus releases hormones. Many of them travel to the Pituitary which then sends hormone signals to various parts of the body like the thyroid, adrenals and reproductive organs.
What are the organs in the brain called which co-ordinate our emotions and emotional reactions to situations?
It is called the Limbic System.
What does the Limbic System contain?
our hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus.
How does the Limbic System process our feelings?
When we are upset, the Limbic System processes our feelings, memorizes them and sends messages to the rest of the body controlling our reaction to the situation. This is why when we encounter the same emotion again, our body remembers the physical response and the same reaction is produced.
What system controls our emotions?
The Limbic System
What is the spinal cord made up of and what purpose does it serve?
The Spinal Cord is a cable of Axons that extends from the brain stem.
Messages from the Brain travel along the spinal cord to all parts of the body.
The spinal cord consists of a column of grey matter covered by layer of white matter.
The backbone surrounds and protects the spinal cord.
What is the Peripheral Nervous System?
It consists of the nerves which reach from the spinal cord and brain to all parts of the body.
What type of neurons are in the Peripheral system?
Sensory neurons
Motor neurons
What purpose does the Sensory Neurons perform?
Sensory Neurons relay nerve impulses to the central nervous system via signals from sense organs and signals from internal changes such as blood pressure or pain.
So sensory neurons help the brain receive messages.
What do Motor Neurons do?
Motor neurons send messages from the brain to the muscles and glands so that we can move around and do activities.
In the event of danger what happens?
In the event of danger which requires quick action, information is sent to the spinal cord along sensory neurons then immediately back along motor neurons which triggers an involuntary reaction called a Reflex, like removing your hand from a hot plate.
Which motor neurons are active all the time?
Some motor neurons are ative all the time, even when the body is asleep.
These neurons, called Autonomic nervous system, keep the body going, controlling such actions as blood pressure and digestion.
The Autonomic Nervous System is compared of which two parts?
Sympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic System.
What does our Parasympathetic system do?
The Parasympathetic Nervous system prepares our body for flight or fight reaction.
Which part of our body starts the Sympathetic Nervous System for flight or fight?
Our Hypothalamus starts the flight or fight response.
How does our body react to the flight or fight response?
Our brain sends messages to our adrenals to make lots of adrenaline so we can run away or fight.
We start breathing heavily, our pulse quickens, we divert blood away from the gut to the muscles, so that we can move rapidly.
After the emergency is over we quickly calm down and hormone levels return to normal.
Tell me what the Sympathetic Nervous System does?
Increases our heart rate to move blood quickly.
Dilates the pupils so we can see well.
Stimulates the sweat glands to get rid of heat.
Dilates the blood vessels to the large muscles so they can work hard.
Constricts the blood vessels to the rest of the body to conserve blood for the muscles.
Opens up the bronchial tubes to the lungs so that we can breather hard.
Stops the secretion of digestive juices to conserve energy for action.
Tell me what the Parasympathetic Nervous System does?
Constricts the pupils
Decreases the heart rate
Constricts the bronchial tubes
Constricts the bronchial tubes
Activates the salivary glands
Stimulates secretions in the gut to restart digestion.
What can we do to calm down from a stressful event?
Deep slow breathing will help slow the heart rate and activate the Parasympathetic Nervous System.
What is the difference between chronic and acute stress?
Chronic stress occurs over months or even years, like work stress or relationship problems, our hormone response is different.
Our hypothalamus again sends signals to our adrenals but this time they make cortisol.
Normally our Cortisol is high in the mornings but gradually decreases as the day goes on.
In highly stressed people, they cortisol stays high all day long.
Eventually the adrenals get exhausted and cannot make enough cortisol anymore. Then the adrenal get exhausted and cannot make enough cortisol anymore.
Then adrenal fatigue sets in, we feel very tired all the time and have no energy to do anything. this may be the cause in some chronic fatigue sufferers.