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28 Cards in this Set

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What is the global hydrological cycle?

Water is continuously cycled between oceans, atmospheres, returning to the ocean were it falls as precipitation.

What type of system is the hydrological cycle?

Closed.

What is a closed system?

It has not inputs or outputs.

What is a local hydrological cycle known as?

Drainage basin hydrological cycle.



What is a rivers drainage basin/river catchment?

The area surrounding the river where the rain falling on the land flows into that river.

What is a watershed?

The boundary of a basin, any precipitation falling beyond that watershed enters a different drainage basin.

What system is a drainage basin?

Open system.

What is an open system?

They have inputs and outputs.

How does water come into the system?

Comes in as precipitation and leaves via evaporation, transpiration and river discharge.

What is precipitation?

All ways the moisture comes out of the atmosphere, it is rain, snow, hail, dew, frost.

What is interception?

When some precipitation lands on vegetation or other structures, like buildings, concrete, tarmac surfaces-before it reaches the soil. It is a temporary store, as the water collected evaporates quickly.

What is vegetation storage?

Water thats been taken up by plants, all water contained in plants at any time.

What are surface storages?

Water in puddles (depression storage), ponds and lakes.

What is groundwater storage?

Water stored in the ground, either in the soil or rocks. Such as porous rocks that have holes in them are known as aquifers.

What is channel storage?

Water held in a river or stream.

Names outputs?

-Evaporation(liquid to gas)


-Transpiration(evaporation from leaves)


-Evapotranspiration


-River discharge


-River flow



What is potential evapotranspiration?

The amount of water that could be lost be evapotranspiration.

What is actual evapotranspiration?

What actually happens.

Names some flows and processes?

-Surface run off/overland flow


-Throughfall


-Infiltration


-Percolation


-Groundwater flow


-Base flow


-Inter flow


-Channel flow

What is surface run off/overland flow?

Water flowing over the land, it can flow over the whole surface or in little channels. Common in arid areas where torrential rain falls on hard baked lands.

What is throughfall?

Water dripping from one leaf to another, or other plant part.

What is stemflow?

Water running down a plant stem or tree trunk.

What is infiltration?

Water soaking into the soil, they are influenced by soil type, structure, and how much water is already in the soil.

What is percolation?

Water seeping down through the soil into the water table.

What is groundwater flow?

Water flowing slowly into the water table through permeable rock. Water flows through most rocks, but if they are permeable with lots of joints it can have a faster groundwater flow.

What is base flow?

Groundwater flow that feeds into the rivers through the river banks and beds.

What is interflow?

Water flowing downhill through permeable rock above the water table.

What is channel flow?

Water flowing in the river or stream, also known as river discharge.