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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe the pathway of air when you inhale.
-Air enters the nostrils;
-Air passes through the naspopharynx
- Air passes through the Oral Pharynx;
-Air passe through the glottis;
-Air passe into the trachea,
-Air passes into the right and left bronchi which branches and rebranches into:
-Bronchioles, each of which terminate in a cluster of:
The lungs lie within the ____?
Thoracic cavity, bounded by the ribs and the diaphragm.
There is a membrane that covers the lungs, what is it called?
Pleural membrane.
Why are the bronchis important?
They're the main passage of air and eventually lead to bronchioles which are finely branched.
Where does gas exchange take place?
In the alveoli.
How many alveolis are there roughly in two adult lungs?
There are about 300 million alveoli. providing a surface of 160sqm.
What are the parts the diaphragm divide called?
The abdominal cavity, which contain the viscera(stomach and intestines) and;
The thoracic cavity which contains the heart and lungs.
What happens during inspiration?
The external intercostal muscles contract, lifting the ribs up and out.
The diaphragm contracts drawing it down.
What happens during expiration?
The external intercostal muscles retract pushing the ribs in and down.
The diaphragm retracts, drawing it up.
How many times do we breath at rest?
15-18 times a minute exchanging 500ml of air.
What happens during more vigorous expiration?
The internal intercostal muscle draw the ribs down and inward;
The wall of the abdomen contracts pushing the stomach and liver upward.
What is vital capacity?
How much a male can flush his lungs normally, about 4 liters of air each breath is inhaled, about 1200ml of residual air remain.
Describe hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin consist of four globulins and heam group which contains Iron ion (Fe2+), to which oxygen bind, only four molecules of oxygen can bind each hemoglobin.
What is myoglobin?
It is a protein with high affinity for O2 and serves as an O2 reserve for muscles.
How long is the distance Oxygen has to diffuse through the alveolar wall and capillary wall to reach the hemoglobin?
About 2mm.
What is surfactant?
Its a product that the alveoli makes to control the surface tension.
How is the transport of respiratory gases?
Oxygen is reversibly bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells.
How is oxygen carried?
It's carried through hemoglobin which can carry four O2 molecules, the concentration of oxygen in hemoglobin is dependant of PO2. It picks O2 as it flows and gives it up in metabolically activ tissues.
What does PO2 stand for?
It stands for concentration of oxygen.
How is Carbon dioxide transported?
It is transported as bicarbonate ions, dissolved in blood.