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293 Cards in this Set

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Digestive system

System that processes food into absorbable units and eliminates indigestible wastes.
alimentary canal or gastrointestinal (GI) tract
The continuous hollow tube extending from the mouth to the anus; its walls are constructed by the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines. Approximately 9 m (about 30 ft)
breaks down into smaller fragments
the digested fragments through its lining into the blood.
accessory digestive organs
Organs that contribute to the digestive process but are not part of the alimentary canal; include the tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pancreas, liver.
taking food into the digestive tract, usually via the mouth.
moves food through the alimentary canal, includes swallowing, which is initiated voluntarily, and peristalsis and involuntary process.
progressive, wavelike contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube organs (or that move other substances through other hollow body organs). Some mixing occurs as well. In fact, the waves are so powerful that, once swallowed, food and fluids will reach your stomach even if you stand on your head
Mechanical breakdown or mechanical digestion
Increases the surface area of ingested food, physically preparing it for digestion by enzymes. Mechanical processes include chewing, mixing foods with saliva by the tongue, churning food in the stomach, and segmentation.
rhythmic local constrictions of the small intestine. Mixes food with digestive juices and makes absorption more efficient by repeatedly moving different parts of the food mass over the intestinal wall.
A series of catabolic steps in which complex food molecules are broken down to their building blocks by enzymes.
Process by which the products of digestion pass through the alimentary tube mucosa into the blood or lymph.
Elimination to the contents of the bowels (feces).
Gut brain
consist of entenric nerve plexuses spreads like chicken wire along the entire length of the GI tract and regulates digestive activity all along the react.
Serous membrane lining the interior of the abdominal cavity and covering the surfaces of abdominal organs.
visceral peritoneum
covers the external surfaces of most digestive organs
parietal peritoneum
lines the body wall
peritoneal cavity
a slit-like potential space containing a slippery fluid secreted by the serous membranes.
Double-layered extensions of the peritoneum that support most organs in the abdominal cavity.
retroperitoneal organs
Are found being the peritoneum, between it and the abdominal wall. They include the suprarenal glands, aorta and IVC, duodenum (all but the 1st part), pancreas (all but the tail), ureter and bladder, colon (ascending and descending), kidneys, esophagus, and rectum (lower two-thirds).
intraperitoneal or peritoneal organs
Within the peritoneal cavity. They include the stomach, appendix, liver, transverse colon, duodenum(only the 1 part), small intestines, pancreas (only the tail), rectum (only the upper 3rd), sigmoid colon and spleen.
Inflammation of the peritoneum
splanchnic circulation
The blood vessels serving the digestive system
mucosa or mucosus membrane
Membranes that form the linings of body cavities open to the exterior (digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts).
Pertaining to a primary tissue that covers the body surface, lines its internal cavities, and forms glands.
lamina propria
underlies the epithelium, is loose areolar connective tissue.
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.
muscularis mucosae
a sacnt layer of smooth muscle cells that produces local movements of the mucosa.
is areolar connective tissue containing a rich supply of blood and lymphatic vessels, lymphoid follicles and nerve fibers which supply the surrounding tissues of the GI tract wall.
muscularis externa or muscularis
The muscular, usually middle, layer of a tubular structure; for most of the gastrointestinal tract, it consists of an outer longitudinal layer of muscle and an inner circular layer.
The moist membrane found in closed ventral body cavities.
Outermost layer of covering of some organs.
enteric neurons or intrinsic nervous system
one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal system.
submucosal nerve plexus
a gangliated plexus of unmyelinated nerve fibers, derived chiefly from the superior mesenteric plexus, ramifying in the intestinal submucosa.
myenteric nerve plexus
a plexus of unmyelinated fibers and postganglionic autonomic cell bodies lying in the muscular coat of the esophagus, stomach, and intestines; it communicates with the subserous and submucous plexuses, all subdivisions of the enteric plexus.
Mouth or oral cavity
the cavity of the mouth, bounded by the jaw bones and associated structures (muscles and mucosa).
oral orifice
An opening, especially to a cavity or passage of the body; a mouth or vent.
lips (labia)
Either of two fleshy folds that surround the opening of the mouth.
the fleshy portion of either side of the face, or the fleshy mucous membrane–covered side of the oral cavity.
oral vestibule
the portion of the oral cavity bounded on the one side by teeth and gingivae, or the residual alveolar ridges, and on the other by the lips (labial vestibule) and cheeks (buccal vestibule).
oral cavity proper
the space between the dental arches, limited posteriorly by the isthmus of the fauces (palatoglossal arch).
labial frenulum
a median fold of mucous membrane connecting the inside of each lip to the corresponding gum.
of of the mouth; the partition separating the nasal and oral cavities.
hard palate
the anterior portion of the palate, separating the oral and nasal cavities, consisting of the bony framework and covering membranes.
soft palate
the fleshy part of the palate, extending from the posterior edge of the hard palate; the uvula projects from its free inferior border.
palatoglossal arches
the anterior of the two folds of mucous membrane on either side of the oropharynx, enclosing the palatoglossal muscle.
palatopharyngeal arches
the posterior of the two folds of mucous membrane on either side of the oropharynx, enclosing the palatopharyngeal muscle.
The passage from the back of the mouth to the pharynx, bounded by the soft palate, the base of the tongue, and the palatine arches.
the small, fleshy mass hanging from the soft palate above the root of the tongue.
the movable muscular organ on the floor of the mouth; it is the chief organ of taste, and aids in mastication, swallowing, and speech.
a rounded mass of food or pharmaceutical preparation ready to swallow, or such a mass passing through the gastrointestinal tract.
intrinsic muscles
muscles that are entirely within the body part or segment moved by them, as the tongue muscles.
extrinsic muscles
muscles that arise outside of, but act on, the structure under consideration.
lingual frenulum
A fold of mucosa that arises from the floor of the mouth, joins medially and connects to the posterior surface of the tongue.
filiform papillae
threadlike elevations covering most of the tongue surface.
fungiform papillae
knoblike projections of the tongue scattered among the filiform papillae.
vallate papillae
eight to twelve large papillae arranged in a V near the base of the tongue.
foliate papillae
parallel mucosal folds on the tongue margin at the junction of its body and root.
terminal sulcus
A V-shaped groove on the surface of the tongue, marking the separation between the oral and pharyngeal parts.
The watery mixture of secretions from the salivary and oral mucous glands that lubricates chewed food, moistens the oral walls, and contains ptyalin.
major or extrinsic salivary glands//minor or intrinsic salivary glands
glands of the oral cavity whose combined secretion constitutes the saliva, including the parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands and numerous small glands in the tongue, lips, cheeks, and palate.
parotid gland
the largest of the three paired salivary glands, located in front of the ear.
submandibular gland
a salivary gland on the inner side of each ramus of the lower jaw.
sublingual gland
Either of two salivary glands situated in the mucus membrane on the floor of the mouth beneath the tongue.
serous cells
one of the two kinds of cells in the acinar portions of salivary glands. Contain secretory granules the precursors of salivary amylase. Their secretion is serous and of low specific gravity.
mucous cells
cells which secrete mucus or mucin.
salivatory nuclei
two columns of cells in the posterolateral part of the reticular formation of the pons, together comprising the parasympathetic outflow for the supply of the salivary glands.
one of the hard, calcified structures set in the alveolar processes of the jaws for the biting and mastication of food.
permanent dentitions/permanent teeth
the 32 teeth of the second dentition
deciduous teeth/milk or baby teeth/primary dentitions
the temporary set of teeth that erupt in the young and are shed before or near maturity. They have smaller crowns and root systems and are fewer in number than the permanent teeth that replace them. Called also milk teeth, temporary teeth, baby teeth.
one of the four front teeth, two on each side of the midline, in each jaw.
the third tooth on either side from the midline in each jaw.
either of two permanent teeth found between the canine and molar teeth.
broad back teeth that grind and crush. any of the posterior teeth on either side in each jaw, numbering three in the permanent dentition and two in the deciduous.
dental formula
shorthand way of indicating the numbers and relative positions of the different types of teeth.
the portion of a human tooth that is covered by enamel.
gingiva or gum
the mucous membrane, with supporting fibrous tissue, covering the tooth-bearing border of the jaw.
The hard, calcareous substance covering the exposed portion of a tooth.
that portion of an organ, such as a tooth, hair, or nail, that is buried in the tissues, or by which it arises from another structure, or the part of a nerve that is adjacent to the center to which it is connected.
the narrowed part of a tooth between the crown and the root.
calcified connective tissue, covers the outer surface of the root and attaches the tooth to the thin periodontal ligament
periodontal ligament
the fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the root of a tooth, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone, and serving to hold the tooth in its socket. It extends from the base of the gingival mucosa to the fundus of the bony socket.
the chief substance of the teeth, surrounding the tooth pulp and covered by enamel on the crown and by cementum on the roots.
pulp cavity
the pulp-filled central chamber in the crown of a tooth.
richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue inside the pulp cavity of a tooth.
root canal
The chamber of the dental pulp lying within the root portion of a tooth.
apical foramen
an opening at or near the apex of the root of a tooth, giving passage to the vascular, lymphatic, and neural structures supplying the pulp.
one of the connective tissue cells in the periphery of the dental pulp that develops into the primary and secondary dentin of a tooth.
dental caries or cavities
the carious defect (lesion) produced by destruction of enamel and dentin in a tooth.
dental plaque
a dense, nonmineralized, highly organized biofilm of microbes, organic and inorganic material derived from the saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, and bacterial byproducts. It plays an important etiologic role in the development of dental caries and periodontal and gingival diseases
a hard, stonelike concretion, varying in color from creamy yellow to black, that forms on the teeth or dental prostheses through calcification of dental plaque; it begins as a yellowish film formed of calcium phosphate and carbonate, food particles, and other organic matter that is deposited on the teeth by the saliva. It should be removed regularly by a dentist or dental hygienist; if neglected, it can cause bacteria to lodge between the gums and the teeth, causing gum infection, dental caries, loosening of the teeth, and other disorders. Called also tartar.
Inflammation of the gums, seen as painless bleeding during brushing and flossing.
periodontal disease or periodontitis
Disease of the periodontium characterized by inflammation of the gums, resorption of the alveolar bone, and degeneration of the periodontal membrane.
The pharynx between the soft palate and the epiglottis.
The part of the pharynx that lies below the aperture of the larynx and behind the larynx and that extends to the esophagus.
Muscular tube extending from the laryngopharynx through the diaphragm to join the stomach;collapses when not involve in food propulsion.
esophageal hiatus
the opening in the diaphragm for the passage of the esophagus and the vagus nerves.
cardial orifice
the trumpet-shaped opening of the esophagus into the stomach.
gastroesophageal or cardiac sphincter
the terminal few centimeters of the esophagus, which prevents reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. muscle fibers about the opening of the esophagus into the stomach.
a burning sensation in the chest that can extend to the neck, throat, and face; it is worsened by bending or lying down. It is the primary symptom of gastroesophageal reflux, which is the movement of stomach acid into the esophagus. On rare occasions, it is due to gastritis (stomach lining inflammation).
hiatal hernia
protrusion of any structure through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm.
chewing, tearing, or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva.
The act or process of swallowing.
buccal phase
The tongue pushes bolus of food into oropharynx
pharyngeal-esophageal phase
involuntary swallowing controlled by the swallowing center located in the brain stem (medulla and lower pons).
The enlarged saclike portion of the digestive tract between the esophagus and small intestine, lying just beneath the diaphragm.
The thick semifluid mass of partly digested food that is passed from the stomach to the duodenum.
a ridge or fold, such as the rugae of the stomach, which are large folds in the mucous membrane of that organ.
cardial part or cardia
the cardiac part of the stomach, surrounding the esophagogastric junction and distinguished by the presence of cardiac glands.
the part of the stomach to the left and above the level of the opening of the esophagus.
body of the stomach
The part of the stomach that lies between the fundus above and the pyloric antrum below; its boundaries are poorly defined.
pyloric part
the distal aperture of the stomach, opening into the duodenum; variously used to mean pyloric part of the stomach, and pyloric antrum, canal, opening, or sphincter.
pyloric antrum
the dilated portion of the pyloric part of the stomach, between the body of the stomach and the pyloric canal.
pyloric canal
the short narrow part of the stomach extending from the gastroduodenal junction to the pyloric antrum.
The passage at the lower end of the stomach that opens into the duodenum.
pyloric sphincter or valve
a prominent fold of mucous membrane at the pyloric orifice of the stomach
greater curvature
directed mainly forward, and is four or five times as long as the lesser curvature.
lesser curvature
extending between the cardiac and pyloric orifices, forms the right or posterior border of the stomach.
lesser omentum
is the double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach and the start of the duodenum.
greater omentum
is a large fold of visceral peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach.
gastric pits
indentations in the stomach which denote entrances to the tubular shaped gastric glands
gastric glands
are found in the body, the gastric mucosa, and fundus of the stomach.
gastric juice
a digestive fluid, formed in the stomach
mucous neck cells
one of the acidic mucin-secreting cells in the neck of a gastric gland.
parietal cells
large spheroidal or pyramidal cells that are the source of gastric hydrochloric acid and are the site of intrinsic factor production.
the proteolytic enzyme of gastric juice which catalyzes the hydrolysis of native or denatured proteins to form a mixture of polypeptides; it is formed from pepsinogen in the presence of acid or, autocatalytically, in the presence of pepsin.
chief cells
columnar or cuboidal epithelial cells that line the lower portions of the gastric glands and secrete pepsin.
enteroendocrine cells
cells of the intestinal mucosa that produce hormones such as secretin and cholecystokinin.
A physiologically active depressor amine found in plant and animal tissue, derived from histidine by decarboxylation and released from cells in the immune system as part of an allergic reaction. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, and vasodilator.
An organic compound formed from tryptophan and found in animal and human tissue, especially the brain, blood serum, and gastric mucous membranes, and active in vasoconstriction, stimulation of the smooth muscles, transmission of impulses between nerve cells, and regulation of cyclic body processes. Also called 5-hydroxytryptamine.
a hormone produced in the hypothalamus that inhibits the release of somatotropin (growth hormone) from the anterior pituitary gland. It also is produced in other parts of the body and inhibits the release of certain other hormones, including thyrotropin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, glucagon, insulin, and cholecystokinin, and of some enzymes, including pepsin, renin, secretin, and gastrin.
Any of the hormones secreted in the pyloric-antral mucosa of the stomach and that stimulate secretion of the parietal cells.
mucosal barrier
the poorly defined mechanism that prevents back diffusion of hydrochloric acid from the stomach into the tissues of the stomach wall.
peptic ulcers or gastric ulcers
an ulcer of the gastric mucosa.
An aspartic proteinase structurally homologous with pepsin, formed from prochymosin; the milk-curdling enzyme obtained from the glandular layer of the stomach of the calf. Acts on a single peptide bond (-Phe-Met-) in κ-casein.
intrinsic factor
a glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells of the gastric glands, necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12. Lack of intrinsic factor, with consequent deficiency of vitamin B12, results in pernicious anemia.
cephalic or reflex phase
gastric secretion occurs even before food enters the stomach, especially while it is being eaten. It results from the sight, smell, thought, or taste of food, and the greater the appetite, the more intense is the stimulation.
gastric phase
This phase last three to four hours and provides about two-thirds of the gastric juice released.
G cells
An enteroendocrine cell that secretes gastrin, found primarily in the gastric glands of the pyloric cavity mucosa of the stomach.
alkaline tide
A period of urinary neutrality or even alkalinity after meals due to withdrawal of hydrogen ions for secretion of highly acid gastric juice.
intestinal phase
Gastric secretion has two components stimulatory and inhibitory.
intestinal (enteric) gastrin
a hormone that encourages the gastric glands to continue their secretory activity.
enterogastric reflex
Peristaltic contraction of the small intestine induced by the entrance of food into the stomach.
A hormone released by the upper intestinal mucosa that inhibits gastric motility and secretion.
A polypeptide hormone produced in the duodenum, especially on contact with acid, that stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice.
cholecystokinin (CCK)
A polypeptide hormone produced principally by the small intestine in response to the presence of fats, causing contraction of the gallbladder, release of bile, and secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes. Also called pancreozymin.
vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
A polypeptide hormone usually secreted by non-beta islet cell tumors of the pancreas, producing copious watery diarrhea and fecal electrolyte loss, resulting in hypokalemia.
receptive relaxation
smooth muscle in the stomach fundus and body which occurs both in anticipation of an in response to food moving through the esophagus and into the stomach. The swallowing center of the brain stem coordinates this process, which is mediated by the vagus nerves acting on serotonin- and NO- releasing enteric neurons
Gastric accommodation
which is an example of smooth muscle plasticity. It is the intrinsic ability of visceral smooth muscle to exhibit the stress-relaxation response, in other words. it can stretch without greatly increasing its tension and contraction expulsively.
basic electrical rhythm (BER)
a slow wave of depolarization of smooth muscle from the fundus to the pylorus that coordinates gastric peristalsis and emptying.
vomiting or emesis
Forcible ejection of contents of stomach through the mouth.
emetic center
Located in the reticular formation of the brainstem, this center controls vomiting.
eructation center
small intestine
the proximal portion of the intestine, about 20 feet long, smaller in caliber than the large intestine, extending from the pylorus to the cecum and comprising the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
ileocecal valve (sphincter)
That guarding the opening between the ileum and cecum.
The beginning portion of the small intestine, starting at the lower end of the stomach and extending to the jejunum.
hepatopancreatic ampulla
ampulla of Vater; a flasklike cavity in the major duodenal papilla into which the common bile duct and pancreatic duct open.
major duodenal papilla
the common entrance in the duodenum for the bile and pancreatic ducts.
hepatopancreatic sphincter//sphincter of Oddi
A valvelike muscular sheath surrounding the distal pancreatic and common bile ducts as they enter the duodenum together.
The middle portion of the small intestine. It is approximately 8 ft (2.5 m) long and extends from the jejunum to the ileum.
The lowest part of the small intestine, located beyond the duodenum and jejunum, just before the large intestine (the colon).
circular folds
one of the numerous annular projections in the small intestine. They vary in size and frequency in the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum and are formed by mucous and submucous tissue.
Tiny, finger-like projections that enable the small intestine to absorb nutrients from food.
referring to the tiny vessels in the villi of the wall of the small intestine through which chylomicrons are absorbed and released into the lymphatic system.
tiny hairlike processes that extend from the surface of many cells. They are usually so small as to be visible only with an electron microscope.
brush border
a specialization of the free surface of a cell, consisting of minute cylindrical processes (microvilli) that greatly increase the surface area.
brush border enzymes
found near to the transporters that will then allow absorption of the digested nutrients
intestinal crypts
simple, branched, tubular invaginations of mucosa at the base of the villi.
Peyer's patches
oval elevated patches of closely packed lymph follicles on the mucosa of the small intestines.
duodenal glands
glands in the submucosa of the duodenum, opening into the glands of the small intestine.
The largest gland of the body, lying beneath the diaphragm in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity, which secretes bile and is active in the formation of certain blood proteins and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
falciform ligaments
a sickle-shaped sagittal fold of peritoneum that helps attach the liver to the diaphragm.
round ligaments or ligamentum teres
Fibrous remnant of the fetal umbilical vein.
hepatic artery
The blood vessel supplying arterial blood to the liver.
hepatic portal vein
a wide short vein formed by the confluence of the superior mesenteric and splenic vein posterior to the neck of the pancreas, ascending anterior to the inferior vena cava, and dividing at the right end of the porta hepatis into right and left branches, which ramify within the liver.
porta hepatis
the transverse fissure on the visceral surface of the liver, where the portal vein and hepatic artery enter and the hepatic ducts leave. Called also portal fissure and transverse fissure.
common hepatic duct
The part of the biliary duct system that is formed by the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts and is joined by the cystic duct to become the common bile duct.
cystic duct
the passage connecting the gallbladder neck and the common bile duct.
bile duct
any of the passages that convey bile in and from the liver.
liver lobules//hepatic lobule
A polygonal histologic unit of the liver, consisting of masses of liver cells arranged around a central vein that is a terminal branch of one of the hepatic veins, and at whose periphery branches of the portal vein, hepatic artery, and bile duct are located.
a parenchymal liver cell that performs all the functions ascribed to the liver.
central vein
the centrally placed drainage vessel of each hepatic lobule, receiving blood from the hepatic sinusoids.
portal triad
anatomically close association of interlobular bile duct, branches of hepatic artery and portal vein.
liver sinusoids
a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.
stellate macrophages or hepatic macrophages
Remove debris such as bacteria and worn-out blood cells from the blood as it flows past.
bile canaliculi
fine tubular channels forming a three-dimensional network within the parenchyma of the liver. They join to form the bile ductules and eventually the hepatic duct.
Inflammation of the liver, caused by infectious or toxic agents and characterized by jaundice, fever, liver enlargement, and abdominal pain.
portal hypertension
abnormally increased pressure in the portal circulation
A bitter, alkaline, brownish-yellow or greenish-yellow fluid that is secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and discharged into the duodenum and aids in the emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats.
bile salts
Any of the sodium salts of the bile acids, such as taurocholate and glycocholate, occurring in bile.
A red bile pigment derived from the degradation of hemoglobin during the normal and abnormal destruction of red blood cells.
A small, pear-shaped muscular sac, located under the right lobe of the liver, in which bile secreted by the liver is stored until needed by the body for digestion.
A gallstone is a solid crystal deposit that forms in the gallbladder, which is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile salts until they are needed to help digest fatty foods.
A lobulated gland without a capsule, extending from the concavity of the duodenum to the spleen, consisting of a flattened head within the duodenal concavity, an elongated three-sided body extending across the abdomen, and a tail touching the spleen, and secreting insulin and glucagon internally and pancreatic juice externally into the intestine.
pancreatic juice
the enzyme-containing secretion of the pancreas, conducted through its ducts to the duodenum.
main pancreatic duct
excretory duct of the pancreas, which usually unites with the common bile duct before entering the duodenum
the smallest functional unit of the liver, a mass of liver parenchyma that is supplied by terminal branches of the portal vein and hepatic artery and drained by a terminal branch of the bile duct.
zymogen granules
little grain granules found in some secretory exocrine cells. They contain the precursors of enzymes that become active after the granules leave the cell.
An intestinal proteolytic glycoenzyme from the duodenal mucosa that converts trypsinogen into trypsin (removes a hexapeptide from trypsinogen).
a proteolytic enzyme formed in the intestine by the cleavage of trypsinogen by enterokinase. Trypsinogen enters the intestine as part of the intestinal juice. It is an endopeptidase that hydrolyzes peptides of arginine or lysine.
any exopeptidase that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of the terminal or penultimate bond at the end of a peptide or polypeptide where the free carboxyl group occurs.
A pancreatic digestive enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of certain proteins in the small intestine into polypeptides and amino acids.
Any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to sugar to produce carbohydrate derivatives.
Any of a group of lipolytic enzymes that cleave a fatty acid residue from the glycerol residue in a neutral fat or a phospholipid.
An enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond of polynucleotide chains and phosphate-deoxyribose bonds within (endonuclease) or at the end (exonuclease) of a nucleotide sequence (nucleic acid).
migrating motor complex (MMC)
the coordinated response of the body to the ingestion of food, which includes peristaltic motion and secretomotor activity. This response also balances fluid and electrolyte levels in the gastrointestinal tract.
gastroileal reflex
increase in ileal motility and opening of the ileocecal valve when food enters the empty stomach.
large intestine
the distal portion of the intestine, about 5 feet long, extending from its junction with the small intestine to the anus and comprising the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.
The matter that is discharged from the bowel during defecation; excrement.
teniae coli
The three bands in which the longitudinal muscular fibers of the large intestine, except the rectum, are collected; these are the mesocolic tenia, situated at the place corresponding to the mesenteric attachment; the free tenia, opposite the mesocolic tenia; and the omental tenia, at the place corresponding to the site of adhesion of the greater omentum to the transverse colon.
one of the pouches of the colon, produced by adaptation of its length to the taenia coli, or by collection of circular muscle fibers 1 or 2 cm apart; the haustra are responsible for the sacculated appearance of the colon.
epiploic appendages
one of a number of little processes or sacs of peritoneum filled with adipose tissue and projecting from the serous coat of the large intestine, except the rectum; they are most evident on the transverse and sigmoid colon, being most numerous along the free tenia.
Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, which is the worm-shaped pouch attached to the cecum, the beginning of the large intestine.
the part of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum.
ascending colon
the portion of the colon passing cephalad from the cecum to the right colic flexure.
right colic (hepatic) flexure
The bend of the colon at the juncture of its ascending and transverse portions.
transverse colon
the portion of the large intestine passing transversely across the upper part of the abdomen, between the right and left colic flexures.
left colic (splenic) fixture
The bend at the junction of the transverse and descending colon.
descending colon
the portion of the colon passing caudad from the left colic flexure to the sigmoid colon.
sigmoid colon
that portion of the left colon situated in the pelvis and extending from the descending colon to the rectum.
the peritoneal process attaching the colon to the posterior abdominal wall, and called ascending, descending, etc., according to the portion of colon to which it attaches.
The terminal portion of the large intestine, extending from the sigmoid flexure to the anal canal.
rectal exam
Rectal examination or digital rectal examination (DRE) is performed by means of inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and palpating (feeling) for lumps.
rectal valves
the three or four crescentic folds placed horizontally in the rectal mucous membrane; the superior rectal fold is situated near the beginning of the rectum on the left side; the middle rectal fold (Houston or Kohlrausch fold) is most prominent and consistent and projects from the right side about 8 cm above the anus (approximately the level of the floor of the rectouterine or rectovesical pouch); the inferior rectal fold is on the left side about 5 cm above the anus.
anal canal
the terminal portion of the alimentary canal, from the rectum to the anus.
The opening at the lower end of the alimentary canal through which solid waste is eliminated from the body.
internal anal sphincter
a smooth muscle ring, formed by an increase of the circular muscle fibers of the rectum, situated at the upper end of the anal canal, internal to the outer voluntary external anal sphincter.
external anal sphincter
a fusiform ring of striated muscular fibers surrounding the anus, attached posteriorly to the coccyx and anteriorly to the central tendon of the perineum; it is subdivided, often indistinctly, into a subcutaneous part, a superficial part, and a deep part for descriptive purposes.
anal columns
vertical folds of mucous membrane at the upper half of the anal canal.
anal sinuses
furrows, with pouchlike openings at the distal end, separating the rectal columns.
bacterial flora
population of commensal microorganisms within the normal gut
haustral contractions
are slow segmenting movements that occur every 25 minutes. One haustrum distends as it fills, which stimulates muscles to contract, pushing the contents to the next haustrum.
mass movements
Brief forcible peristaltic movements that move the contents through long segments of the large intestine.
gastrocolic reflex
increase in intestinal peristalsis after food enters the empty stomach
A diverticulum of the colon is a sac or pouch in the colon walls which is usually asymptomatic (without symptoms) but may cause difficulty if it becomes inflamed.
A condition where pouchlike sections that bulge through the large intestine's muscular walls but are not inflamed occur. They may cause bleeding, stomach distress, and excess gas.
A condition of the diverticulum of the intestinal tract, especially in the colon, where inflammation may cause distended sacs extending from the colon and pain.
defecation reflex
normal response to the presence of feces in the rectum
Excessive and frequent evacuation of watery feces, usually indicating gastrointestinal distress or disorder.
infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels, with hard faeces, caused by functional or organic disorders or improper diet
Decomposition of a chemical compound by reaction with water, such as the dissociation of a dissolved salt or the catalytic conversion of starch to glucose.
Any of several carbohydrates, such as tetroses, pentoses, and hexoses, that cannot be broken down to simpler sugars by hydrolysis. Also called simple sugar.
salivary amylase
your saliva glands secrete this enzyme into your mouth. It digests starch into pairs of glucose molecules, dextrin and maltose which are smaller, sweeter sugars. That's why starchy carbohydrates taste sweeter the longer they are in your mouth.
pancreatic amylase
made by the pancreas and is secreted into the small intestine to finish digesting starches into pairs of glucose. These pairs are split into free glucose by another enzyme, and the glucose is absorbed by the small intestine to be used for energy.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of dextrins.
a hydrolase that catalyzes the degradation of glycogen to glucose in the lysosomes; deficiency of enzyme activity results in glycogen storage disease, type II.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of maltose to glucose.
a disaccharide that is hydrolysed into glucose and fructose during digestion. Occurs naturally in sugar and is added to many manufactured foods. Overconsumption of sucrose with inadequate dental hygiene can cause dental problems.
A galactosidase occurring in the intestine that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose into glucose and galactose.
amino acid
Any of various organic acids containing both an amino group and a carboxyl group, especially any of the 20 or more compounds that link together to form proteins.
Any of the hydrolases–enzymes, which catalyze the removal of amino terminal amino acids or dipeptides from a protein or peptide
any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the peptide linkage in a dipeptide.
any enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of a fatty acid anion from a triglyceride or phospholipid.
fatty acids
organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that are esterified with glycerol to form fat.
a compound consisting of one molecule of fatty acid esterified to glycerol.
pancreatic nucleases
located in pancreatic juice hydrolyze the nucleic acids to their nucleotide monomers
Building block of nucleic acids; consist of a sugar, a nitrogen containing base, and a phosphate group.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis or phosphorolysis of nucleosides, releasing the purine or pyrimidine base.
Any of numerous enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters of phosphoric acid and are important in the absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, nucleotides, and phospholipids and in the calcification of bone.
collections of fatty elements clustered together with bile salts in such a way that the polar (hydrophilic) ends of the molecules dace the water and nonpolar portions from the core.
the tiny lipoproteins of approximately 2% protein that convey dietary fat throughout the body.
lipoprotein lipase
an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of fatty acids from triglycerides (or di- or monoglycerides) in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins.
the iron-apoferritin complex, one of the chief forms in which iron is stored in the body.
A beta globulin in blood serum that combines with and transports iron.
vitamin D
either of two fat-soluble compounds with antirachitic activity or both collectively: cholecalciferol, which is synthesized in the skin and is considered a hormone, and ergocalciferol, which is the form generally used as a dietary supplement.
Defective or inadequate absorption of nutrients from the intestinal tract.
primitive gut
a flat sheet of intraembryonic endoderm that will change into a tubular gut due to the folding of embryonic body-head, tail, and lateral body folds.
A midline ectodermal depression ventral to the embryonic brain and surrounded by the mandibular arch. It becomes continuous with the foregut and forms the mouth.
oral membrane//buccopharyngeal membrane
a membrane in an early embryo composed of ectoderm and endoderm and separating the head end of the gut from the stomodeum
An inward fold on the surface of the embryonic ectoderm that develops into part of the anal passage. Also called anal pit.
cloacal membrane
the thin temporary barrier between the embryonic hindgut and the exterior.
cleft palate
A congenital fissure in the roof of the mouth, resulting from incomplete fusion of the palate during embryonic development. It may involve only the uvula or extend through the entire palate. Also called palatoschisis.
cleft lip
A congenital facial deformity of the lip, usually the upper lip, due to a mesodermal deficiency or to a failure of merging in one or more of the embryologic processes that form the lip; it is frequently associated with cleft tooth socket and cleft palate. Also called cheiloschisis, harelip.
a catchall term for infection or irritation of the digestive tract, particularly the stomach and intestine. It is frequently referred to as the stomach or intestinal flu, although the influenza virus is not associated with this illness.
Cholecystitis refers to a painful inflammation of the gallbladder's wall. The disorder can occur a single time (acute), or can recur multiple times (chronic).
a disorder in which swallowing is hindered or prevented. Botox injections can relax the esophageal sphincter.
Abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity; if excessive, causes visible bloating of the abdomen. May result from portal hypertension caused by liver cirrhosis or by heart or kidney disease.
Barrett's esophagus
a pathological change int he epithelium of the lower esophagus from stratified squamous to columnar epithelium. A possible sequel to untreated chronic gastroesophageal reflux due to hiatal hernial, it predisposes the individual to aggressive esophageal cancer (adenocarcinoma).
Grinding or clenching of teeth, usually at night during sleep in response to stress. Can wear down and crack the teeth.
Binge-purge behavior-episodes of massive overeating followed by some method of purging (self-induced vomiting, taking laxatives of diuretics, or excessive exercise). Most common in women of high school or college age and in high school males in certain athletic activities (wrestling). Rooted in a pathological fear of being fat, and a need for control; provides a means of handling stress and depression. Consequences include eroded tooth enamel, stomach trauma or rupture (from vomiting), and severe electrolyte disturbances which impair heart activity. Therapy includes hospitalization to control behavior, and nutritional counseling.
difficulty swallowing; usually due to obstruction or physical trauma to the esophagus.
visual examination of the ventral body cavity or the interior or a visceral organ with a flexible tube-like device called a endoscope, which contains a light source and a lens. A general term for colonoscopy (viewing the colon), sigmoidoscopy (viewing the sigmoid colon), etc.
Inflammation of the intestine, especially the small intestine
a disorder in iron metabolism due to excessive/prolonged iron intake or a breakdown of the mucosal iron barrier; excess iron is deposited in the tissues, increasing skin pigmentation and the risk of hepatic cancer and liver cirrhosis
A condition in which all GI tract movement stops and the gut appears to be paralyzed. Can result from electrolyte imbalances and blockade of parasympathetic impulses by drugs (such as those commonly used during abdominal surgery); usually reversed when these interferences end. The reappearance of intestinal sounds indicates restoration of motility.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Ulcerative colitis or Crohn's colitis; chronic conditions characterized by periods of diarrhea, bloating, abdominal cramps, and pain, sometimes accompanied by weight loss and malnutrition because of the inability to absorb nutrients.
Laparoscopy is a type of surgical procedure in which a small incision is made, usually in the navel, through which a viewing tube (laparoscope) is inserted. The viewing tube has a small camera on the eyepiece. This allows the doctor to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs on a video monitor connected to the tube. Other small incisions can be made to insert instruments to perform procedures. Laparoscopy can be done to diagnose conditions or to perform certain types of operations. It is less invasive than regular open abdominal surgery (laparotomy).
The dental specialty and practice of preventing and correcting irregularities of the teeth, as by the use of braces.
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas, an organ that is important in digestion. Pancreatitis can be acute (beginning suddenly, usually with the patient recovering fully) or chronic (progressing slowly with continued, permanent injury to the pancreas).
peptic ulcers
Wounds in the stomach and duodenum caused by stomach acid and the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the colon, rectum, and anus.
pyloric stenosis
Pyloric stenosis refers to a narrowing of the passage between the stomach and the small intestine. The condition, which affects infants during the first several weeks of life, can be corrected effectively with surgery.
the surgical cutting of the vagus nerve to reduce acid secretion in the stomach.
dryness of the oral cavity resulting from functional or organic disturbances of the salivary glands and lack of the normal secretion, primarily caused by prescribed medications. Dryness, loss of basic environment, and resultant overgrowth of oral microorganisms frequently lead to rampant caries.