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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Geographic Characteristics of Countries
shape, boundaries, location
Political Geography
the study of the organization and distribution of political phenomena from a geographic perspective
an independent political unit
a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
United Nations (U.N)
An organization that exercises power over countries
51 founding countries
now 200 countries
Geographic Characteristics of States
Large and Small states
Large States
greater chance for useful resources
vast areas sparsely populated, hard to integrate
larger boundaries, hard to defend.
Small States
more likely to have cultural homogenous population
easy transportation
shorter boundaries, vulnerable
Shapes of States
Compact- Zimbabwe
Elongated- Norway
Protruded- Thailand
Fragmented- Philippines
Perforated- South Africa
a territorial outlier of one state is located within another state
a territory is surrounded by another state
eg, Andorra
Landlocked States
about one fifth of world states are landlocked
International Boundaries
perceived as lines without breadth on maps
states with very small land area
Types of Country Boundaries
Natural Boundaries
Cultural Boundaries
Geometric Boundaries
Advantage to explode natural resources
Natural Boundaries
based on recognizable physiological features, such as mountain ranges
Cultural Boundaries
boundaries that coincide with ethnicity, language and religion
Geometric Boundaries
follow parallels of latitude or meridians of longitude
U.S- Canada Border
follow 49 parallel
U.S- Mexico Border
Rio grande divides east part.
Centripetal Forces
bind countries together
ex, National identity, tradition, language
Centrifugal Forces
tear a country apart
ex. ethnic issues, religion, culture
Centrifugal Forces
Organized religion
Two types of States
Unitary States
Federal States
Unitary States
most power in hands of central government
ex. China
Federal State
central government shares power with sub-units
ex. United States
Regional Alliances
European Union (E.U)
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
European Union
a bloc of European countries enjoying free trade and committed to full political union
Electoral Geography
a state's electoral system, part of its spatial organization of movement.
Electoral Geography in the U.S
territorial representation
population representation
Bi- Cameral Legislature
each state has 2 senators
number of House reps is proportional to state population (435 seats), each state has at least 50
effort by one country to establish settlements in a territory and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on that territory.
the drawing of voting district lines in ways that exclude specific groups of voters, to make political advantage
Reapportionment or Redistricting
changing of electoral districts/constituency boundaries in response to periodic census results
geographic areas within which eligible residents vote to elect their representatives