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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When was the Crimean war?
What were the three main battles of the Crimean War?
Alma, Inkerman and Balaklava
Who was Prime Minister during the Crimean War?
Lord Aberdeen
Who was in charge of France?
Napolean III
Who was the Tsar in Russia?
Tsar Nicholas I
What was the main reason for war?
To reacquire the Crimea from Russia
Why was it important to acquire the Crimea?
Russia had a good position on the Black sea, especially the port on Sevastopol. This threatened British trade routes. Ottoman Empire was weak, espescially Turkey. If Turkey was taken over, Russia would get the waterway to the med.
Who joined Turkey to fight Russia?
Britain and France
Who was Commander in chief during the Crimean war?
Lord Raglan
Who was Staff Officer?
Captain Nolan
Who was Commander of Cavalry?
Who was Captian of the Light Brigade?
Lord Cardigan
What is a major example of incompetent leadership in the war?
The Charge of the Light Brigade
In which battle did this take place?
Battle of Balaklava (oct 1854)
Who was the most significant reporter during the war?
Willy H.Russell
Who was the most significant poet during the war?
Tennyson - 'The Charge of the light Brigade'
Who was the most significant photgrapher during the war?
Roger Fenton
Who were the two nurses of the war?
Mary Seacole and Florence Nightingale
What was so significant about Mary Seacole?
She was from a working class family. She was refused to work as an army nurse in the Crimea, so she funded her own trip to the Crimea. This was sigificant as it meant that working class women were able to become nurses. She even visited the battlefield to treat the wounded. This was also a first for nursing.
Which hospital did Nightingale work in in Turkey?
What improvements did Nightingale make?
Conitions were improved in hospitals and mortality rates were reduced. She also established the Nightingale Training School for nurses.
What was the name of the Government department responsible for army supplies?
The Commissariat
When was the downfall of the Commissariat?
Winter 1854-55
For what reasons did this cause their downfall?
- allies thought Sevastopol would fall quickly because the Russians had less guns. They consequently didn't have enough supplies.
-Road from Balaklava to Sevastopol was inadequate
-lack of supplies for both men and horses
Horses didn't have enough fodder so died of starvation
-14th Nov=hurricane - tents, barracks and hospital tents blew away and destroyed, trenches flooded.
-worst losses at sea = port of Balaklava overcrowded and waiting to unload when hurricane hit.
- 'Prince' (ship) carrying all supplies for the winter was destroyed. Would take months for the amount of supplies to be made and shipped again.
- horses had no food and were over worked. Men had to ration food and every 2 days, they had 1 day without any food. Supply road was increasingly worse, failed to repair it.
What did Officers etc do to help?
Nothing. Raglan rarely visited the troops and was uninterested in their welfare. Raglan cut off comfortable quarters and failed to devise any policies to help situation. Fellow officers looked on army leadership in disgust.
- Officers did not suffer though - did serve in trenches but returned to heated tents or buildings, had hot food and regularly changed clothes (had money to buy food/supplies).
What were the disadvantages of the sale of commissions?
- some don't have experience
- they're old so they have old ideas about fighting e.g. the charge of the light brigade.
What caused more men to die other than injuries?
Disease. Particularly Typhus and Cholera.
When did Aberdeen resign and who replaced him?
1855. Replaced by Pamlerston.
What were the consequences of the war?
Cardwell reforms, improvement in nursing, Nightingale used knowledge in Britain.
What were the Cardwell reforms?
Were formed by Edward Cardwell, Secretary of State for war, in response to the problems of the army during Crimean war.
1. 1868 - flogging was abolished during peacetime. Completley abolished in 1880.
2. 1869 - Troops withdrawn from self-governing colonies
3. 1871 - 26,000 men returned to Britain.
4. 1870 - Army Enlistment Act = reduced the time a man was enlisted (encouraged more recruits). 12years service, didn't have veterans, plenty of well trained reserves.
5. 1871 - Regularisation of the Army Act = set up 66 brigade districts based on country bound armies. Encouraged more recruits. Made sure every regiment had 2 battalions, one at sea and one for training. Men felt more familiar with the men they were fighting with.
6. 1871 - Sales of Commissions abolished, Branding abolished, war office reformed - administration of the army, everything was under war office.
Commander in Chief directly controlled by Secretary of War.