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42 Cards in this Set

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subsistence farming
-farming just enough to feed your family, with very little left over to trade
-practiced mostly in New England
-no slaves used usually
triangular trade route
-a trade route that formed a triangle
-one was between West Indies, colonies and West Africa
- Example : molasses, sugar, fruit from West Indies goes to colonies, colonists make rum from molasses, rum and goods go to Africa, slaves go to Indes
Middle Passage
-worst part of triangular trade route
-between West Africa to the West Indies
-slaves were cramped, died on this journey
cash crops
-crops that can be sold easily in markets in the colonies and overseas
-southern colonies main cash crops were rice and tobacco
Tidewater
a region of flat, low-lying plains along the seacoast where plantations were found
backcountry
west of Tidewater, near the Appalachian Mountains, was settled by hardy newcomers with small farms
overseers
bosses of slaves
slave codes
strict rules governing the behavior and punishment of enslaved Africans
Criticism of Slavery
Puritans refused to own slaves and Quakers and Mennonites condemned slavery
Middle Colonies' Industries
-carpentry
-flour making
-lumbering
-mining (iron)
-small-scale manufacturing
English Bill of Rights
-signed by William and Mary in 1689
-later became the inspiration for America's Bill of Rights
-gave citizens some basic rights
mercantilism
idea that a nation's power depended on expanding it's trade and increasing its gold reserves
import and export
brought in and sold abroad
Navigation Acts
-Laws that directed flow of goods from colonies to England
-Colonists had to use English ships
-Colonists were forbidden to sell certains goods to other countries
-caused smuggling problems
charter colonies
-CT and RI
-established by groups of settlers with a charter, or a grant of rights and privileges
-could elect governor and two houses
proprietary colonies
-DE, MD, PA
-ruled by individuals or groups who appointed governor and upper house
-people elected lower house
royal colonies
-GA, MA, NH, NJ, NY, NC, VA
-ruled directly by Britain, who appointed governor and council
-colonists elected assembly
Voting Rights
Only white men who owned land could vote
Great Awakening (Puritans)
-1730s and 1740s
-ministers called for a new birth and return to strong faith of old days
-led to formation of many new churches especially in backcountry
Jonathan Edwards
George Whitefield
Jonathan Edwards of MA was found powerful and convincing in his sermons
George Whitefield arrived in 1739 and helped spread revival over two years
Women Roles
cooking, making butter and cheese, preserving food, spinning yarn, made clothes, tended livestock, sometimes shared fieldwork, kept house
Men Roles
formal heads of households, managed farms, represented family, in charge of wives
Unmarried and Widowed Women Roles
maids, cooks, nurses, teachers, seamstresses, owned shops and inns, could run businesses and own land
Education
-highly valued in New England
-New England Primer
-high level of literacy
-dame schools
-colleges = Harvard, William and Mary College
Enlightenment
movement that spread the idea that knowledge, reason and science could improve society, began in Europe, some religious leaders opposed it
Benjamin Franklin
wrote the annual Poor Richard's Almanack, invented lightning rod, discovered electricity, Franklin stove, bifocals, opened a college, the first lending library, a hospital, and a fire department, guided colonies toward independence
Iroquois Confederacy
based in NY, five main nations, avoided British-French conflict for a while, but eventually became Britain's reluctant allies
militia
civilians trained to fight in emergencies
Louisbourg
important French fortress on Cape Breton Island, captured by New Englanders, later returned to France to much protest
Ohio River Valley
regarded by French as their own territory, disliked British involvement, fueled the fire between Britain and France
French and Native Americans
French and many native allies, made peaces with them, only traded, didn't colonize
George Washington
originally a planter and surveyor, went to Ohio country to get rid of French and was unsucessful, later went back with a small militia and established Fort Necessity, conquered again
Albany Plan of Union
reps from New England, NY, MD, and Pa met in Albany, NY. They wanted to find a way for the colonies to work together against the French, this failed, not a single colony agreed, and Ben Franklin was disappointed that no one accepted his 'one general government'
General Edward Braddock
commander in chief of British forces in America, was sent to drive out French, but was killed because of his bad strategy
Seven Year's War
long war between French, British, and Spanish in Cuba, the West Indies, India, and the Philippines, North America, Europe
Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe
led an assault in 1758 to recapture Louisbourg, Wolfe later died in a battle at Quebec
Treaty of Paris
signed 1763, let France keep islands in the West Indies, but divided rest of lands in North America between French and Spanish, ended Seven Year's War, marked end of French as North American power
British and Spanish landholdings in North America after the Treaty of Paris
Spanish got New Orleans and lands west of Mississippi from France
British got Florida from Spain and received Canada and lands east of Mississippi from French
Chief Pontiac
chief of Ottawa village near Detroit, felt threatened by British, united all natives together, and attacked colonists using Braddock's paths he cut
Pontiac's War
started spring of 1763, ended with Treaty of Paris, series of attacks against colonists, settlers took revenge after the war
Proclamation of 1763
George III of England declared that the Appalachian Mountains were the temporary boundary for the colonies, lands west of mountains were forbidden
Problems caused by Proclamation of 1763
Speculators (investors) were angered when their landholdings west of the Appalachian range were declared illegal and invalid by the king