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127 Cards in this Set

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Figure 8 Knot

stopper knot used to keep lines from running through a pulley or shiv

Square Knot

used to tie the two lines of the same diameter together

Bowline Knot

a non-slip loop used to raise and lower lighting instruments

Clove Hitch

used to tie a line to a pipe

Dimmer

electrical device that controls the intensity of a light source connected to it

Control Board

console containing controls for a number of dimmers

Cable

electrical extension cord used to connect instruments to dimmers or instruments to dimmers or instruments to permanent stage circuits

Instuments

lighting fixtures designed for use in the theatre

Color Media

plastic or glass materials used to color the light emitted by lighting instruments

Lighting Designer

person responsible for the appearance of the lighting during the production

Production Concept

creative interpretation of the script that will unify the artistic vision of the production design team

Focus

location onstage where the light from an instrument is directed

Douser

mechanical dimmer with movable slats or an iris to block or allow light to pass

Light Cue

some type of action involving lighting

Followspot

lighting instrument with a high intensity, narrow beam of light; mounted on a stand that allows it to tilt and swivel so that the beam can follow the actor

Moving Light Fixture

lighting fixture that can be remotely controlled to move, change color/beam shape, and so forth (aka. intelligent light fixture)

Production Design Team

the producer, director, and scenic, costumes, lighting, and sound designers, who develop the visual and aural concept for the production

Unit Set

single set in which all the play's locations are always visible and the audience's attention is usually shifted by alternately lighting various parts of the set

Sidelight

any light striking the side of an object relative to the view of the observer

Kinetic

having to do with moving light

Lighting Production Team

personnel who work on lighting for a production

Repertory Theatre

company that presents several different plays alternately in one theater in the course of a season; adjustments are normally made to the focus and color of the lighting instruments for each play each time it is performed

Changeover

changing from one play to another in a repertory theater situation; involves exchanging sets, costumes, and properties and making adjustments to lighting and sound

Look

appearance of a particular cue; the way the light looks onstage

Senographic Designer

designer responsible for the entire artistic look of a production (scenery, costumes, lighting)

Hanging

process of placing the lighting instruments in their specified location

Circuiting

process of connecting a lighting instrument to its specific circuit

Running

controlling or operating some aspect of a production

Pipe

counterweighted batten or fixed metal pipe that holds lighting instruments or equipment

Boom

vertical pipe with a heavy base frequently equipped with horizontal crossbars; used as a hanging position for lighting instruments

Lamp

"light bulbs" used in stage lighting instruments

Patch

connect a stage circuit to a dimmer circuit (hard patch) or dimmer to a channel (soft patch)

Gel

insert color media in a color frame and place on a lighting instrument; color media made from gelatin or plastic

Light Board

generic term used to describe all types of lighting control consoles

Cue

directive for action; change in the lighting

Fade

increase (fade-up) or decrease (fade-out) the intensity of the light

Patch Panel

inter-connecting device that allows you to connect any stage circuit into any dimmer

Repatch

remove one circuit from the dimmer and replace it with another during a performance

Mask

block the audience's view

Lens Train

one or more lenses, placed at a specific distance from the source to create the desired angle of dispersion of the light

Focal Length

distance from the lens at which the light rays converge into a point

Diffuse

soften the appearance of the light by using a translucent filtering element to scatter the rays

Conventional

describes instruments that are not moving light fixtures

Bulb

Pyrex glass or synthetic quartz container for a lamp filament and gaseous environment

Filament

light-producing element of a lamp, usually made of tungsten wire

Open Arc

light source in which the two electrodes operate in the open air

Microwatt

one millionth of a watt

Dielectric Material

material that is a poor conductor of electricity but a good supporter of electrostatic fields; help focus the RF energy on the scaled bulb

Full Spectrum

containing all the colors of light in approximately the same proportions as sunlight

Footcandle

international unit of illumination; equals one lumen of light falling on a surface area of one square foot

Throw Distance

how far light from an instrument travels from its hanging position to the center of its area of focus

Point Source

theoretically- a light emanates from a single point that has no dimension

Efficient

a comparison of the intensity of light emitted by the lamp with the intensity of light emitted by the instrument

Plano-convex Spotlight

archaic instrument with a relatively hard-edged light quality; uses a plano-convex lens

PAR

parabolic aluminized reflector; sealed beam lamp with a parabolic shaped reflector covered by a thin, reflective, aluminum coating

Dichroic Filter

reflects unwanted wavelengths of light while allowing the desired wavelengths to pass through the filter

Zoom Eclipse

ellipsoidal reflector spotlight with movable lenses that allow the focal length to be changed

Beam Angle

point where the light emitted by an instrument is diminished by 50% compared to the output of the center of the beam

Field Angle

point where a fixture's light output diminishes to 10% of the output of the center of its beam

Flat

beam of light, the output of which is essentially smooth from edge to edge when measured perpendicular to the axis of the beam

Peak

beam of light, the output of which has a noticeable hot spot in its center when measured perpendicular to the axis of the beam; reading taken at the center of the hotspot

Shutter Cut

straight-line edge created when an ERS's shutter is inserted into its beam of light

Color Frame

lightweight metal holder for color media that fits in a holder at the front of a lighting instrument

Gobo

thin metal template inserted into an ellipsoidal reflector spotlight to project a shadow pattern of light

Dremel Tool

handheld router similar to a dentist's drill, which can be equipped with a number of bits for grinding, cutting, or carving of wood, plastic, and metal

Iris

device with movable overlapping metal plates used with an ellipsoidal reflector spotlight to change the size of the circular pattern of light

Barn Door

accessory for a fresnel spotlight whose movable flippers are swung into the beam to control in

Top Hat

accessory for a fresnel spotlight that masks the beam to create a smaller circular pattern of light; prevents flare and spill

Cyclorama

large expanse of cloth or drop used to surround the stage (aka. cyc)

Roundel

glass color medium for use with spotlights; has diffusing properties

Shutter

lever-actuated device used to control the height of the top and bottom edges of a followspot beam (aka. chopper)

Transformer

changes the voltage in a electrical system

Step-down Transformer

output voltage is lower than its input voltage

Overhung

lighting fixture that is "standing up" on a pipe

Underhung

hung beneath

Tab Pipe

pipe in the wings, running downstage to upstage; often used for hanging masking and/or lighting equipment

Dead-hung

anything suspended directly from the grid without an mechanical means of raising or lowering it

Grid

pattern of metal beams above the stage to which the flying system is attached

Pin Rail

catwalk

Proscenium Stage

the spectators watch the action through a rectangular opening that resembles a picture frame

Thrust Stage

projection into and surrounded on three sides by the audience

Arena Stage

completely surrounded by the audience

Aircraft Cable

strong, flexible, multistrand, twisted metal cable; breaking strength of one ton

First Ante-proscenium (AP) Cut

hanging position for lighting instruments closest to the proscenium arch (aka. beamport)

Third Pipe

third batten upstage of the proscenium arch that holds lighting instruments

Rental House

business that rents stage lighting equipment

Gaffer's Tape

cloth tape

Two-fer

electrical Y that has female receptacles at the top of the Y and a male plug at the bottom leg of the Y; used to connect two instruments to the same circuit

Work Light

lighting fixture, frequently a scoop, PAR, or other wide-field-angle instrument, hung over the stage to facilitate work

Multicable

number of individual conductors enclosed in a single heavy-duty cable

Load-in

physically moving the scenery and show equipment into the production location

Load-out

physically moving the scenery and show equipment out of the production location

Socapex Connection

19-pin connector used with multicables

Breakout

used to "break" the individual circuits inside the multicable into individual cables equipped with female receptacles

Breakin

used to consolidate the male-plugged individual circuits into a female Socapex connector that is connected to a multicable

Drop Box

small connecting strip containing four to eight circuits

Wall Pocket

connecting box similar to a floor pocket but mounted in the wall

Floor Pocket

connecting box mounted flush with the stage floor

Legitimate Theatre

plays that rely on the spoken word to convey their message

Concert

touring rock and country shows

Club

night clubs in which high energy music is the prime attraction

Pan

to rotate horizontally

Tilt

to rotate vertically

Show Rig

fixtures used on a lighting design

Daisy Chain

to connect one another in a continuous line

Profile

fade profile is a linear, graphic representation of a fade

Zoom

widening and narrowing of the cone of light emitted by the instrument

Effect Lens

specialty lenses mounted on a gobo wheel or an effect wheel

Prismatic Lens

surface pr interior of the glass is scored or beveled to create the desired effect

Flag

inserted into a beam of light to color, shape, or dim light

Strepper Motor

electric motor whose movement consists of discrete angular steps rather than continuous rotation

Relay

electro-mechanical device in which the low-voltage circuits is used to control the opening and/or closing of contacts in a high-voltage on/off system

Heat Sink

metal device used to draw heat away from heat-sensitive electronics and vent it to the air without the use of fans

Fog

generated smoke effect that typically dissipates relatively quickly

Haze

generated smoke effect that typically lasts longer than fog

Fog Fluid

specialized liquid, normally composed of glycol and various additives, used in fog or haze generators

Truss

engineered structure suspended above the stage or auditorium, used as a hanging position for lighting equipment

Truss Tower System

truss supported on both ends by towers

4 Functions of Lighting

-Visibility


-Focus


-Mood/Atmosphere


-Modeling

Intensity Equation

I=1/D^2




I= Intensity


D= Distance

Problems with Plano Convex Leses

-Hard Edge (can't blend)


-Blue Halo


-Lenses break when too close to lamp

Problems with Fresnel Lenses

-Permanently soft edge

Pros and Cons of Parcan

Pros


-inexpensive




Cons


-not a lot of control

Pros of Cyc

-Throws wide beam of light over a short distance

Tungsten Halogen Lamp

-no more sooty look on the inside of the bulb


-longer lamp life


-most common

Pros and Cons for Encapsulated Arc Lamps


Pros


-Blue White Light (less amber than Tungston




Cons


-Not electrically dimable


-Needs minimum amount of electricity to make spark


-Can't be switch on and off quickly

Pros and Cons of LED (Light Emitting Diods)

Pros


-lowest maintenance


-long lasting


-can directly change color


-don't get hot


-more light for the power




Cons


-more supernatural lighting


-issues with color spectrum