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70 Cards in this Set

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fibrinoid necrosis conditiosn

vasculitis


malignant HTN


DM


immune complex deposition

base excision repair - process

glycosylase cleaves base


endonuclease cleaves 5' end


lyase cleaves 3' end


polymerase and ligase fill in the gaps

nitrites - mechanism of damage

deaminate things


C>U


A>hypoxanthine


G>xanthine

aortic dissection primary risk factor

HTN

abd. aortic aneurysm risk

increased cholesterol

athero affects veins or arteries or both?

arteries

vitamin deficiencies in postnatal period


colostrum has which vitamin

vit k - lack of gut bacteria, shows up immediate postnatal period


vit d - for those exclusively breastfed - doesn't show up until 6 months later


vitamin A is in colostrum

HepB s/sx


lab

serum-sickness like


fevere, fatigue, skin rash


elevated ALT/AST
elevated bili, alk phos

hepC cute

mild, asympomatic

R external jugular vein > braciocephalic vein path

ext jug > R subclavian


R subclavian + r internal jug + r lymphatic duct > R braciocephalic

R lymphatic duct drains?

R face, neck, arm, hemithorax, RUQ

axillary vein drains what?


drains to?

drains arm


> SCV

supine hypotension in pregnancy


what other position?

duce to IVC compression > decreased venous return


also seen in R lateral decubitus

CCK secreted by?


where?


in response to?


what pathology

secreted by I cells in duod, jejunum


response to fa-rich chyme


CCK release in obstuction > biliary colic

vagal positive or negative > somatostatin?

negative

erosion vs ulcer

erosion - not through muscularis mucosa fully


ulcer - through musc mucosa > submucosa

most common causes of GI ulcers - 2

1) h pylori


2) nsaids

gastric layers

mucosa (LP, glands), muscular mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propia, serosa

Fe deficiency anemia s/sx

dysphagia, spoon nails/koilonychia


dysphagia due to espohageal webs

what increases fe absorption?

vitamin c

pyridoxine deficiency > heme path

sideroblastic anemia

serum sickness


hypersens type


s/sx


histo


timing


complement?

type III

fever, arthralgia, pruritic skin rash


fibrinoid necrosis of small vessels w/ nphils


decreased c3


7-14 days post exposure


neuotrpenia - extravasation

some drug causes of serum sickness

monoclonal antibodies


non-human IgG


TMP/smx

C5a

mediaets nphil extravasation

serpentine pattern of mycobaceteria indicates

presence of cord factor > increased virulence

sulfatides fxn in mycobacteria

inhibit lysosome - phagosome fusion > facilitate survival in macrophages

c perfringens s/sx

gas gangrene


late-onset transient watery diarrhea

PCL location, fxn, MOI

medial anterior > lateral posterior


prevents posterior tibial displacement relative to femur


injured by direct blow to anterior proximal tibia

ACL fxn

prevents anterior displacement of tibia relative to femur

review knee anatomy

fine...

pancoast tumor location


pain where

superior sulcus = groove of subclavian vessels


pain in nerve roots c8-t2

hemoptysis neoplasm

bronchogenic carcinoma

mass where > SVC syndrome?

mediastinal

bladder carcinoma - cell derivatives


s/sx

transitional/urothelial epithelium


similar to normal bladder epithelium


s/sx: painless hematuria

loop diuretics sfx

hypoK


hypoMg


hypoCa


ototox - esp in combo w/ others

spironolactone sfx

hyperK


gynecomastia

age-related macular degeneration - dry

graudlation, RPE oxidative damage


drusen deposition subretinal

ARMD - wet


tx

acute - days > wks


metamorphosia - straight line distortion


hemorrhage/grey/green deposits


VEGF antibodies - bevacizumab, ranibizumab

ranibizumab MOA

inhibits VEGF

statins + what > increased myopathy risk?

fibrates

bisphosphonate MOA

analogue of pyrophosphate in hydroxyapatite


makes hydroxyap more insoluble


inhbiits clasts


stay upright after taking...

-dronate suffix

bisphosphonate

dermatomyositis s/sx


labs


antbody

gottron, heliotrope


proximal muscle weakness


elevated CK
anti-Jo1 antibody

fatty streaks in vessels - what are they/what do they signify

intracellular lipid accumulation in macros - 1 step in athero, but don't alway progress to athero


present in everyone > 10

you can report 4 things w/ o consent

abuse - child/elder


gun/stabbing


reportable communicable disease (to public health officials)


imminent harm to self/others w/ ability to carry out threat

papillary thyroid carcinoma histo

fibrovascular stalk


cuboidal cells


ground glass nuclei

adeonsine sfx


use

flushed, chest burn/bronchospasm, hypotension, AV block


used for PSVT

amiodarone sfx

photoderm, skin discoloration, PF, hyper or hypothyroid

vitiligo


association

loss of epidermal melanocytes


associated w/ other autoimmune disorders


areas of hypopigmentation


MJ

cafe au lait - histo

melanosome aggregation in melanocytes

linear melanocyte hyperplasia - condition

lentigo

clindamycin sfx

c dif

doxy sfx

photosens, tooth discoloration in kids

BNP - relased when?

HF, stretching of ventricles - associated w/ hypertrophy/volume overload

mitochondrial swelling indicates

reversible ischemia

B6 deficiency s/sx

PN, seborrheic dermatitis, glossitis

tetanus dx

H+P

fistulates/ulcers - GI disease

crohns - can get fistulates between anything and gut, even skin

mesenteric adenitis


who gets it


cause


s/sx

kids


yersinia


abd. pain RLQ, fever, nausea, vomiting

B cell ALL markers

TDT, CD10, CD 19

T cell ALL markers

TDT, CD2-8

positive straight leg raise indicates?

back - L4-S3, sciatic nerve root

tracheal deviation in atelectasis?


in pleural effusion?

towards ipsi in atelectasis


towards contra in pleural effusion

neoplasm and atelectasis - how? imaging

cancer in mainstem bronchus > obstruction > alveolar collapse > opacificed side

pulmonary edema on xay

doesn't opacify - fluffy, infiltrate, bilateral

think about unilateral vs. bilateral on chest xray

RIGHT

ERB+ aggressive or indolent?

often aggressive

sis- marker for?

astrocytoma, osteosarcoma

RAS in what pathway?

MAPK

fluid in alveolar spaces aka

pulmonary edema