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143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What eight things make up one's sexual identity?
-Biological Sex
-Genetic Sex
-Anatomical Sex
-Gender Identity
-Gender Expression
-Sexual Orientation
-Sexual Arousal
-Sexual Behavior
What is biological sex?
Broken down into genetic sex and anatomical sex
Genetic sex
Chromosomes and hormones are on a spectrum.
From Male to intersex to female.
XY to XX
Anatomical sex
Reproductive organs, genitalia.
From male to intersex to female.
From penis and testes to vagina and uterus
Gender Identity
Psychological sense of maleness or femaleness.
Man to two spirit/third gender to woman.
Gender Expression
Communication of gender. Clothing, etc.
Masculine, androgynous, feminine.
Sexual Orientation
Who you are attracted to.
Men, men and women, women
Sexual Arousal
Who you are aroused by
Men, men and women, women
Sexual Behavior
Who you are having sex with.
With men, with men and women, with women
What is normal sexuality for men?
Vaginal intercourse is universal.
3/4 in oral sex.
1/5 in anal sex.
23% report having had sex with over 20 partners. 70% report having had sex with one partner in the past year.
What is normal sexuality for women?
9% report having had sex with 15 people or more in their lifetime.
10% reported 20 or more people
Masturbatory Behavior Differences
81% of men
45% of women
Premarital sex
Men tend to have more of it
Sexual partners and frequency of intercourse
Men tend to have more partners.
Men tend to have a higher frequency of intercourse.
Intimacy versus arousal
? What was her point on this?
How do core beliefs about sexuality differ between men and women?
Women: romantic but self-conscious
Men: powerful but passionate
Four themes of gender differences
-Men show more arousal and desire than women
-Women emphasize committed relationships as a context for sex more than men
-Men’s sexual self-concept is characterized in part by power, independence, and aggression
-Women’s sexual beliefs are more easily shaped by cultural, social, and situational factors
Zambia Sexual Behaviors
People are semen providers and recipients.
No masturbation, it's a waste of semen.
Only heterosexual behavior until late in adolescence
Munda Sexual Behaviors
Petting and mutual masturbation is taught amongst children and adolescents
U.S. versus Swedish women
Swedish women are more likely to use contraception the first time they have sex
Does homosexuality run in families?
Yes. Concordance rates for identical twins is 50%, fraternal twins is 16-22%
Possible biological reasons for homosexuality
Exposures to certain hormones in utero. Different brain sizes
"Exotic Becomes Erotic" theory
Says that anything that is exotic or out of the ordinary to you when you are younger will eventually become erotic.
Sexual dysfunction
Sexual disorder in which the client finds it difficult to function adequately before or while having sex
Four different types of disorders
Sexual Response Cycle
Two sex-specific dysfunctions
-Premature ejaculation
2 specifications of dysfunctions
1-due to psychological factors
2-due to psychological factors combined with a general medical condition
Prevalence of sexual dysfunction
43% of women
31% of men
Disorder versus distress
44% of women had a sexual dysfunction, but 24% were distressed. Only half of them were bothered by it.
Best predictor of sexual distress for women
-Emotional well-being
-Relationship with partner during sexual relations
-lubrication or orgasm
Sexual Desire Disorders
-Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
-Sexual Aversion Disorder
Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
-Little or no interest in any type of sexual activity
-Most common complaint of women in clinics.
-50% of sexual dysfunctions is this disorder
-Little to no fantasies or masturbation
-Sex once a month or less
Sexual Aversion Disorder
-Little interest in sex as well as fear, panic, or disgust related to physical or sexual contact or thoughts
-Panic Disorder is highly comorbid
-Mostly women
-10% of men with this have panic attacks
-25% of people with this disorder also have Panic Disorder
Sexual Arousal Disorders
-male erectile disorder
-female sexual arousal disorder
Male erectile disorder
-Formerly known as impotence.
-Difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection.
-Most common problem that men report.
-60% with this disorder are over 60.
Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
-Formerly known as frigidity.
-Difficulties achieving or maintaining lubrication.
-14% of women have this problem
Orgasm Disorders
Inhibited orgasm
-Male orgasmic Disorder
-retarded ejaculation
-retrograde ejaculation
-premature ejaculation
-Female Orgasmic Disorder
Inhibited Orgasm
inability to achieve orgasm despite adequate sexual desire and arousal
Retrograde Ejaculation
Ejaculatory fluids travel back into the bladder. Almost always effected by drugs or another medical condition.
Female Orgasmic Disorder
-Never or almost never reach orgasm and experience distress over the problem.
-Most common complain women in clinics seek.
-25% of women report significant difficulties reaching orgasm
-50% of women report regular orgasms
Premature ejaculation
-Ejaculation occurs before men and partners wish it to occur
-1/5 of men
Sexual Pain Disorders
-Intercourse is associated with marked pain.
refers to pain during intercourse in the context of sexual desire and an ability to attain arousal and orgasm
Pelvic muscles in the outer third of the vagina undergo involuntary spasms when intercourse is attempted.
Psychophysiological Assessments
Used to measure sexual responsivity during erotic stimuli
-Penile strain gauge
-Vaginal Photoplethysmograph
A specific phobia related to sex.
Thought to arise in early childhood from families or religious authorities
Script Theory
Sexuality is dangerous, dirty, forbidden. This leads to later problems
Sensate focus and non-demand pleasuring
-Reduce performance anxiety
-Three phases
1-no genital stimulation
2-with genital stimulation but not orgasm
3-intercourse attempted in parts
Specific procedure for premature ejaculation
Squeeze technique
Specific procedure for women with orgasmic problems
Masturbatory training
Specific procedure for Vaginismus
Gradual insertion
Specific procedure for low desire
Education, masturbation and erotic material
Viagra for ED
50-80% of men benefit
30% have headaches
Testosterone for ED
Not very effective
Vasodilating drugs
Inject into penis to produce an erection.
Painful and 50-60% stop after a short period.
Can produce bruising and fibrosis nodules.
MUSE for female arousal
Topical cream found to benefit women
Penile prosthesis
-Newest is like a pump
Vacuum device therapy for ED
70% to 100% report satisfactory erections
Unusual sexual attraction to inappropriate people such as children or objects such as clothing
Comorbidity with three things and paraphilias
Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and substance abuse
Sexual attraction to nonliving objects.
Arousal, fantasy, urges are focused on an object.
Another source of arousal related to a part of the body, such as foot, buttocks, or hair
Practice of observing an unsuspecting individual undressing or naked in order to become aroused
Sexual arousal and gratification by exposing one’s genitals to unsuspecting strangers
Transvestic Fetishism
Sexual arousal is strongly associated with the act of dressing in clothes of the opposite sex, or cross dressing.
-Not unusual for men with this fetish to compensate with extremely macho tendencies.
Sexual Sadism
Arousal associated with either inflicting pain or humiliation
Sexual Masochism
Arousal associated with suffering pain and humiliation
Decreasing oxygen intake in order to increase sensation of orgasm
Sexual attraction to young children or very young adolescents.
90% of abusers are male
Very rare in women
Sexual attraction to children who are relatives
Child molestation
Abusers often rationalize behavior as “loving” and, compensate by engaging in “moral” behavior
Sexual arousal and gratification by rubbing the body parts on unsuspecting strangers
Covert sensitization
- Procedure carried out in imagination of patient
- Involves associating sexually arousing images with negative consequences (bad smell, loud noise, electric shock, etc.)
Orgasmic reconditioning
Involves masturbation to usual fantasies and then substitution right before ejaculation occurs
Drug treatment for paraphilias
-cyproterone acetate
-equivalent to chemical castration by lowering testosterone levels dramatically
Gender Identity Disorder
-Formerly known as transsexualism
-Cases where a person’s physical/biological gender is inconsistent with his/her sense of identity as male or female
GID Criteria (two things)
A: strong and persistent cross-gender identification
B: persistent discomfort with one's assigned gender
Criteria A for children
- Stated desire or insistence to be other sex
- Cross-dressing
- Cross-sex roles in play
- Strong preference for other-sex playmates
Criteria A for adolescents/adults
- Stated desire to be other sex
- Frequent passing as other sex
- Desire to live or be treated as other sex
- Conviction of possessing typical feelings/reactions of other sex
Criteria B for children
- For boys, dislike and loathing penis; aversion to rough play and rejection of stereotypical toys
- For girls, rejection of urination position; assertion that one will grow a penis/aversion to breast growth and menstruation
Criteria B for adolescents/adults
Preoccupation with getting rid of primary and secondary sex characteristics; request for hormones; desire for surgery to physically alter sex characteristics to simulate other sex; belief that one was born the wrong sex
Male to female ratio for GID
2.3 to 1
Double mastectomy
Removing both breasts
Breast augmentation
Forming two breasts
Facial feminization surgery
Shave down Adam's Apple.
Make the face triangular
Remove the testicles completely
Sexual Reassignment Surgery
-Surgically alter anatomy to be consistent with gender identity
-Individuals must live in the opposite sex roles for 1 to 2 years
-Individuals must be stable psychologically, financially, and socially
Making a penis
Making a vagina
Broad term referring to hallucinations and/or delusions
Types of hallucinations
-sensory: sensing something from the environment that doesn't exist
-auditory: hearing something that doesn't exist
-visual: seeing something that doesn't exist
A type of psychosis with disturbed thought, language and behavior
Types of schizophrenia
-Paranoid Type
-Catatonic Type
-Undifferentiated Type
-Residual Type
Psychosis versus schizophrenia
General versus specific
Sensory deprivation
Put someone in a situation void of all senses and they will eventually become psychotic of some sort
Positive Symptoms
Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech.
Grandeur, persecution, being controlled, thought broadcasting, thought insertion/withdrawal
Experience of sensory events without environmental input.
Visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile hallucinations
Inability to feel pleasure
Perseveration versus repitition
Repeating small chunks of information.
Repeating large chunks of information.
Clang associations
The last word in the phrase rhymes with the word in the next sentence
The Negative Symptom Cluster
Absence or insufficiency of normal behavior
Or apathy.
Refers to the inability to initiate and persist in activities.
Can't find a document when asked.
Refers to the relative absence of speech
Lack of pleasure, or indifference to pleasurable activities
Affective flattening
little or no expressed emotion
Disorganized Symptom Cluster
Severe and excess disruptions in speech, behavior and emotion.
Rambling speech, erratic behavior, inappropriate affect
Cognitive slippage
illogical and incoherent speech
going off on a tangent, not answering a question directly
Catatonia spectrum
wild agitation to waxy flexibility to complete immobility
Schizophreniform Disorder
Schizophrenic symptoms for a few months.
Most resume normal lives.
Schizoaffective Disorder
Symptoms of schizophrenia and a mood disorder are independent of one another.
Delusional Disorder
Delusions that are contrary to reality without other major schizophrenia symptoms.
Many show other negative symptoms.
Rare and has a better prognosis than schizophrenia
Brief Psychotic Disorder
Experience one or more positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
Usually brought on by extreme stress or trauma.
Tends to go away on his own.
Hospital delirium
Being admitted into a hospital and end up becoming psychotic. Particularly elderly people.
Shared Psychotic Disorder
Delusions from one person manifest in another person (folie a deux).
Type I Schizophrenia
-positive symptoms
-good response to medication
-optimistic prognosis
-absence of intellectual impairment
-Dopamine is a big player
Type II Schizophrenia
-negative symptoms
-poor response to medication
-pessimistic prognosis
-intellectual impairments
Is schizophrenia mono or polygenetic?
Smooth-pursuit eye movement
Tracking a moving object visually with the head kept skill.
Tracking deficits in persons with schizophrenia as well as their relatives.
Dopamine Hypothesis
Drugs that increase dopamine, result in schizophrenic-like behavior.
Drugs that decrease dopamine, reduce schizophrenic-like behavior
Enlarged ventricles
have to do with mental retardation
-less active frontal lobes
-lower inhibition
Double Bind Communications
The mother gets very angry and pulls a daughter in with her screaming and then hits her and pushes her away.
First line of treatment for schizophrenia
Major tranquilizers
Miserable side effects, create irreversible damage to your neurological system, tremors and gate problems
Developmental Disorders
Childhood is associated with significant developmental changes.
Disruption of early skills will likely disrupt development of later skills.
Diagnosed in the beginning of life.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
-inattention, overactivity, and impulsivity
-Associated with behavioral, cognitive, social, and academic problems
ADHD Symptom Clusters
Cluster 1-inattention
Cluster 2-hyperactivity and impulsivity
Boys to girls
4 to 1
Stimulant medications for ADHD
Ritalin, aderall, dexedrine
-reduce impulsivity/hyperactivity and improve attentions
Learning disorders
-Problems related to academic performance in reading, mathematics, and writing
-Performance is substantially below what would be expected
Reading Disorder
-Discrepancy between actual and expected reading achievement
Most common learning disorders
Central Auditory Processing Dysfunction
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Problems occur in language, socialization and cognition. Spans the entire life.
Ex: Autism and Asperger's
Autism: three central features
1. Problems in socialization and social function
2. Problems in communication (50% never acquire useful speech)
3. Restricted patterns of behavior, interests, and activities
Most striking feature of autism
Restricted patterns of behavior, interests, and activities
Repeating everything that is said to you.
Asperger's Disorder
Part of the autistic syndrome.
-Significant social impairments
-Obsessive Compulsive Behaviors
-Clumsy and often quite verbal
-Pedantic speech: very precise