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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Within the hypothalamus, there are two centers for hunger:
Feeding Center and the Satiety Center
Center in hypothalamus that increases food intake
Feeding Center
Center in hypothalamus that decreases food intake
Satiety Center
When blood glucose is high and amino acid is high then feeding is _____.
When blood glucose is low and amino acid is low then feeding is _____.
A cold environment _____ eating while a warm environment _____ eating.
enhances; decreases
Organs composing the gastrointestinal tract include (6):
mouth, pharynx, esophagus,
stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
The second group of organs composing the digestive system consists of the accessory structures (6):
the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
The four coats or tunics of the
tract from the inside out are the:
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa or adventitia.
Plexis of Meisner controls
secretion of the GI tract
Myentric plexus or Plexus of Auerbach controls
GI motility
The _____ is the outermost layer of most portions of the alimentary canal.
The serosa is also called the
visceral peritoneum.
The ______ is the largest serous membrane of the body.
The _____ peritoneum
lines the wall of the abdominal cavity. The _____ peritoneum covers some of
the organs and constitutes their serosa.
parietal; visceral
In certain diseases, the peritoneal cavity may become
distended by several liters of fluid so that it forms an actual space. Such an accumulation of serous fluid is called
ascites, or ascites fluid
The _____ binds the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall.
The _____ binds the large intestine to the posterior body wall.
_____ ligament attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm.
The greater ______ is a four-layered fold in the serosa of the
stomach that hangs down like an apron over the front of the intestines.
The greater omentum is composed of a large amount of adipose tissues, and therefore is sometimes referred to as the:
fatty apron
Oral Cavity =
The transition zone where the two kinds of covering tissue meet is called the ____
the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth is called the _____ palate
_____ palate forms the posterior portion of the roof of the mouth.
Hanging from the free border of the soft palate is a conical muscular process called the ____.
palatoglossal arch
anterior pillar
platopharvngeal arch
posterior pillar
The ____ muscles of the tongue originate outside the tongue and insert into it.
_____ muscles originate and insert within the tongue
The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with ____
____ papillae are conical
projections distributed in parallel rows over the anterior two-thirds of the
tongue and contain no tastebuds
____ papillae contain tastebuds.
____ papillae (least
numerous), 10 to 12 in number, are arranged in the form of an inverted V on the posterior surface of the tongue, and all of them contain taste buds.
three pairs of salivary glands:
parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands.
______ secretes into
the oral cavity vestibule via a duct, called the parotid (Stensen's) duct
Parotid glands
submandibular glands secretes into the ____ duct
Sublingual glands secretes into the ____ duct
Amounts of saliva secreted daily vary from between approximately ____ to ____ ml.
1000 - 1500
The pH of ____ is 6.35 to 6.85 which is slightly acidic.
three principle portions of teeth:
crown, root, neck
The dentin of the crown is covered by
The dentin of the root is covered by ____
opening of root canal at its base
apical foramen
Everyone has two dentitions, or sets of teeth. The first of these, the ____ teeth, also known as milk teeth, or baby teeth
The permanent dentition consists of ___ teeth
chewing =
______ initiates the breakdown of starch. This is the only chemical digestion that
occurs in the mouth
salivary amylase
Swallowing =
Swallowing is conveniently divided into three stages:
(1) The voluntary stage
(2) The pharyngeal stage
(3) The esophageal stage
The ____ lies behind the trachea
the esophagus is lined by _____
nonkeratinized stratified squamous
food is pushed through the esophagus by involuntary smooth muscular movements called ______
Stomach is divided into four areas
cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus
The superior concave medial border of the stomach is called the ____
curvature, and the inferior convex lateral border is the ____ curvature.
When the stomach is empty, the
mucosa lies in large folds, called ____ that can be seen with the naked eye.
The _____ secrete stomach gastrin, a hormone that stimulates secretion of hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen,
contracts the lower esophageal sphincter, mildly increases motility of the GI tract, and relaxes the pyloric sphincter and relaxes the ileocecal sphincter.
enteroendocrine cells
mechanical digestion in stomach results in a liquid called
In the adult, chemical digestion is achieved primarily through
the enzyme ____
What keeps pepsin from digesting the protein in stomach cells along with the food?
First, pepsin is secreted in an inactive form called pepsinogen. Second, the stomach cells are protected by mucus
another enzyme in the stomach is ____.This enzyme operates best at a pH of 5.0 to 6.0
and has a limited role in the adult stomach
gastric lypase
The ____ phase of gastric secretions occurs before food enters the stoach and prepares the stomach for digestion.
Cephalic (reflex)
Once the food reaches the stomach, both nervous and hormonal
mechanisms ensure that gastric secretion continues.
Gastric Phase
a hormone that stimulates the gastric glands
to continue their secretion.
enteric gastrin
Even though chyme stimulates gastric secretion during the gastric phase, it can ____secretion during the intestinal phase.
All three hormones inhibit gastric secretion and decrease motility of the GI tract.
secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastric inhibiting peptide (GIP).
Stomach emptying is inhibited by the _______
enterogastric reflex
The enterogastric reflex not only
inhibits gastric ____, it also inhibits gastric ____.
secretion; motility
pancreatic duct
duct of Wirsung
pancreatic duct unites with the common bile duct from the liver
and gallbladder and enters the duodenum in a common duct, called the
hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of Vater)
duct of Santorini
_____ form the endocrine portion of the pancreas and consist of alpha, beta, and delta cells that secrete hormones (glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin, respectively).
pancreatic islets (islets of Langherhans),
Each day the pancreas produces _____ amounts of pancreatic juice,
1,200 to 1,500 ml (about 1.2 to 1.5 qt)
juice a slightly ____
trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypolypeptidase are _____ digesting enzymes
pancreatic amylase is a ____ digesting enzyme
pancreatic lipase is a ____ digesting enzyme
occupies most of the right
hypochondrium and part of the epigastrium of the abdomen.
Trypsin is activated by ____ from its inactive form called trypsinogen
Chymotrypsin is activated by ___ from its inactive form called chymotrypsinogen
Carboxypolypeptidase is activated by ____ from its inactive form called procarboxypolypeptidase.
right and left lobes of the liver is seperated by the
falciform ligament
ligamentum teres
round ligament
right and left hepatic ducts
make up the common hepatic duct
stellate reticuloendothelial
Kupffer's cells
The liver receives a double supply of blood. From the hepatic artery it obtains _____blood, and from the hepatic portal vein it receives _____blood
oxygenated; deoxygenated
Each day the hepatic cells secretes ____ of bile
800 to 1,000 ml (about 1 qt)
The pH of ____ is 7.6 to 8.6
The principal bile pigment is____
Bilirubin is eventually broken down
in the intestine, and one of its breakdown products, known as ______, gives
feces their color.
stimulates the secretion of bile
The liver performs many vital functions. Among these are the following:
The liver manufactures bile salts which are used in the small intestine for
the emulsification and absorption of fats, cholesterol, phospholipids, and
2. The liver, together with mast cells, manufactures the anticoagulant heparin
3. The stellate reticuloendothelial (Kupffer's) cells of the liver phagocytize worn-out red and white blood cells and some bacteria.
4. Liver cells contain enzymes that either break down poisons
6. The liver stores glycogen
7. The liver and kidneys participate in the activation of vitamin D.
The function of the gallbladder is to ____ and ____ bile
store and concentrate
This hormone brings about contraction
of the muscularis coupled with relaxation of the sphincter of the
hepatopancreatic ampulla, resulting in emptying of the gallbladder.
cholecystokinin (CCK).
The small intestine is divided into three segments:
duodenum, ileum, jeiunum
The mucosa of the small intestines contains many pits
intestinal glands (crypts of Lieberkuhn)
duodenal glands =
Brunner's glands
lacteal =
lymphatic vessel
increases the surface area for absorption and digestion of nutrients.
plicae circulares
are numerous in the ileum of the small intestine.
Peyer's patches,
has a pH of 7.6, which is slightly alkaline,
Intestinal juice
It DOES NOT push the intestinal
contents along the GI tract.
an enzyme in pancreatic juice that acts in the small intestine.
pancreatic amylase
____ splits maltose into two
molecules of glucose.
____ breaks sucrose into a molecule of glucose and a
molecule of fructose.
_____ digests lactose into a molecule of glucose and a
molecule of galactose.
acts on peptides and breaks the peptide bonds
that attach amino acids to the amino end of the peptide.
an enzyme
found in pancreatic juice, hydrolyzes each fat molecule into fatty acids and
pancreatic lipase
About ____% of all absorption of nutrients takes place throughout the length of the small intestine.
Bile salts form spherical aggregates called _____
Vitamins A, D, E, K are ___ soluble
aggregate into globules along with phospholipids and cholesterol and become coated with proteins.
clusters of triglycerides
right colic flexure
hepatic flexure
The colon is divided into
ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid portions.
anal columns =
columns of Morgagni
Unlike other parts of the digestive tract tract, portions of the longitudinal muscles are thickened, forming three conspicuous longitudinal bands referred to as
taeniae coli.
Tonic contractions
of the bands bather the colon into a series of pouches called
Small pouches of visceral peritoneum filled with fat are attached to taeniae cols and are called
epiploic appendages (folds).
One movement characteristic of the large intestine is
haustral churning