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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What did the "crisis of conscience" that affected some European thinkers in the late 17th century mean?

thinking going from traditional medieval to modern views

What is the geocentric model of the universe?

Earth in center, circular orbits, god outside

How did religious leaders react to the theory of Copernicus?

at first welcomed it, then realized it was bad for the church.

How did the Catholic Church react to the astronomical writings of Galileo?

Arrested him, threatened to torture him

What did the English poet Alexander pope mean when he wrote - "God said, 'Let Newton be! And all was light'"?

newton shed light on the universe

What was something in common between William Harvey and Isaac Newton?

Used math to prove their theories

How did Descartes conclude that he existed?

Because he thinks

What were some important events and influences in the 17th century - especially in political thought?

natural law/divine right

English civil wars

Liberal political theory

What was the basis of Bishop Bossuet's arguments for the divine right of kings?

Belief that God gave certain men the right to rule

What were some of the ideas of John Locke?

Men are equal

protection of property

tabula rasa

What is tabula rasa?

we are born as a blank slate

What was the basis of Enlightenment thinking?

Age of reason

From what sources did the Enlightenment thinking draw?

Greco-Roman secular values, renaissance humanism, scientific revolution methodology

What country produced the Enlightenment?


What kinds of reform did the philosophes call for

religious toleration, public education, rational system of justice

what is the main idea of deism

god made universe and set laws in motion then stepped out of the picture

what is another name for laissez-faire economics?

free trade

how did the philosophes spread their ideas?

The Encyclopedie

How did French women contribute to the Enlightenment?

natural rights, education, opposed hierarchy

Which country, a limited monarchy, became the ideal model for many philosophes?

Great Britain

What were the main design elements of Rococo interiors?

Mirrors, chandeliers, rocaille

What technological innovation is associated with Hogarth's art?

Engraving and multiple prints

What characterized Neo classicism?

disciplined perspective

What ideas did Neoclassical architecture emphasize?

proportion and simplicity

Did voltaire ever support the enlightened despots?

Yes - visited some of them

Which writers' intense personal autobiography foreshadowed Romanticism?


What new literary form was developed in the age of reason

the novel

what did 18th century novelists generally write about?

true-to-life individuals

What did the English novelists use to make their works realistic?

following characters, ordinary lives, narrative voice

What was the perfect instrument for Rococo music?


What were the characteristics of Classical music?

form, structure, sonata form, clear and simple harmonies

What did Mozart present in the marriage of figaro

humorous account of the lower class

What are the legacies of the Age of Reason?

emergent and potent force for change

human is good

challenge to absolutist governments

What characterizes the period between 1760 and 1830

middle class wins power from aristocracy

What was one of the major events which occurred at the beginning of the industrial revolution in the english cloth-making industry?

Industrialization in England

How can Europe be described in 1830?

continent divided into liberals and conservatives

What was the major issue that divided England and her American colonies in 1775?

Taxes and cost of upkeep

After the American Revolution, how did the nation's new leaders realize their democratic goals?

written constitution with specific and enforceable laws

What was the major accomplishment of the first phase of the French Revolution?

created a limited constitutional monarchy

What does the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen guarantee?

natural and civil rights

What did Europe do in the period 1815 to 1830 in reaction to the Napoleonic era?

accepted some changes and rejected others

Why is the French painter Ingres important?

captured subjects personality

What did Romantic writers and artist express?

nature - creative nonconformity

What country can best claim to be the original home of romanticism?


what did goya express in his pointings?

nightmarish vision of world

despair over homeland

psychological treatment of his subjects

Which group did Hegel's ideas most influence?


What are some of the characteristics of Beethoven's music?

culmination of classical music plus introduction of romantic music

Which events between 1760 and 1830 left a lasting stamp on the modern world?

industrial revolution

american revolution

french revolution