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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what does the plasma membrane do and what is it made of?
composed of phospholipids and proteins and regulates substances going in or out of the cell it protects
what is passive membrane transport
a process that occurs without the use of ATP
what is bulk flow
the mass movement of water and dissolved solutes. ie. blood giving water and glucose to tissues
what is diffusion
the movement of molecules from regions of high conc. to regions of low concentration until eq. is reached
what is osmosis
the movement of water from high conc. to low conc. across a semi-permeable membrane.
what is facilitated diffusion
movement of molecules through a transport protein on the cell membrane. this does not require ATP
what is active transport
movement of molecules through a transport protein on the cell membrane. does require ATP. ie.
kidney cells moving sodium
what is Endocytosis
a process by which cell take in substances using vesciles. could be a polypep or sacharride
what is pinocytosis
a form of endocytosis. viscles form around liquids or small particles
what is phagocytosis
form of endocytosis. viscles form around large particles.
what is exocytosis
visicles fuse with the plasma membrane, secretion occus, our panceatic cells realease digestive enzymes by exocytosis
can electrically charged particles move across a non polar membrane?
what is microvilli- specializations of the plasma membrane
Cytoplasmic extensions of the cell membrane that increase surface area.
epithelial cells in the intestine contain microvilli that increase the absorption of digestive products
what are tight junctions-specialization of the plasma membrane
long lasting permanent connnections between cells. tight junctions are found in cells lining the digestive tract, the prevent leakage of nutrients between the cells
what are communicating junctions?
Consist of proteins that form channels between cells. They transport simple sugars and amino acids between cells.
what is Desmosomes
These protein anchoring junctions connect the cytoskeletons between cells. They resist stress and are found in muscle and skin epithelium.
what are prokaryotes?
Small cells with free floating DNA, no nuclear membrane or internal compartments for enzyme reactions. They have strong cell walls composed of peptidoglycan, a cell membrane, flagella, and a nucleoid region with DNA. Bacteria are prokaryotes. Most are single-celled and reproduce by binary fission.
what are Eukryotes
Larger cells with a nuclear membrane encasing their DNA. They contain organelles that are sites for enzymatic reactions, and they reproduce by mitosis. Eukaryotes may be single-celled or multicelled organisms. Protists, fungi, plants, and animals are eukaryotic.
what is a the nucleus of a cell and its function
Spherical, surrounded by a double membrane that contains chromosomes. The nucleus is the control center of the cell that directs protein synthesis and cell reproduction.
what is the endoplasmic reticulum of a cell and its function
A network of internal membranes that participates in protein and lipid synthesis. Products are carried in vesicles.
what is the Golgi Apparatus of a cell and its function
Stacks of flattened vesicles that packages and ships proteins and lipids from the ER.
what are the lysosomes of a cell and there purpose
Vesicles from the golgi apparatus that carry digestive enzymes. The break down food products and worn-out organelles.
what is the mitochondria of a cell and what's its purpose
acs with a double membrane. They metabolize glucose and are the sites of energy reactions.
what are the plastids of a cell and there function
Oval-shaped organelles in plant cells that either serve as sites of photosynthesis or starch storage sites. Chloroplasts, leucoplasts, and amyloplasts are plastids.
what is the cell wall of a cell and its function?
These structures help protect the cell, maintain its shape, and prevent excessive uptake of water. The polysaccharide peptidoglycan is found in bacteria; plants, fungi, and most protests also have cell walls outside of their cell membrane.
what is the cytoskeleton a cell and its purpose
A network of protein fibers in the cell that support and give it shape. They fibers constantly form and disassemble. They also anchor organelles.
what is the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs?
such as plants and algae that make their organic nutrients from inorganic raw materials; heterotrophs live on the energy that autotrophs produce, they feed on others. Animals, fungi, most protists, and bacteria are heterotrophs.
animal tissue... what is epithelium and function
This tissue covers surfaces such as our body cavities, digestive tract, and makes up our skin. The epidermis of the skin protects us.
annimal tissue... what is connective tissue and its function
This tissue supports us, reduces friction, and connects structures. Loose connective tissue supports our skin, bone protects internal organs, cartilage is found in our discs, and blood delivers oxygen to our cells.
animal tissue... what is nerve tissue
This tissue receives, produces, and conducts electrical signals. Neurons and neuroglia cells (these support and insulate neurons) make up nerve tissue.
annimal tissue... what is muscle tissue
Muscle cells are the motors of the body, they contract helping us move, digest food, and pump blood. Cardiac tissue is found in the heart.
plant tissue- what is the epidermal
Forms the outer protective covering in plants, one cell thick
plant tissue... what is vascular tissue
Conducting tissue in stems. Xylem conducts water and dissolved minerals, phloem conducts carbohydrates.
plant tissues... what is parenchyma
A type of ground tissue or filler tissue. Thin-walled cells that function in storage, photosynthesis, and secretion
The process where living organisms maintain a relatively stable internal condition is
Homeostasis is the process that allows living organisms to maintain a relatively stable internal condition.
Populations of organisms change over the course of many generations. Many of these changes result in increased survival and reproduction. This phenomenon is
Biological evolution refers to the changes that populations of organisms will accumulate over many generations.
All of the places on the Earth where living organisms are found is the
The biosphere encompasses all the land, air and water where living organisms are found.
The scientific name for humans is Homo sapiens. The name Homo is the _____ to which humans are classified.
Humans are classified in the genus Homo.
The complete genetic makeup of an organism is called
The genome is an individual’s complete genetic makeup.
Old Kingdom 2570-2544 BCE
made of diorite
5' 6"
rigid, steadfast, forward, generic, not naturalistic
resting place for the Ka