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54 Cards in this Set

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Epithelial Tissue two functions?
Provide covering and produce secretions (glandular tissue)
Epithelial exists in what form..
Sheets and doesn't have its own blood supply
Epithelial Tissue is classified by 2 criteria:
1. # of cell layers
2. Cell shape
`
Two types of Epithelial Tissue:
1. Simple
2. Stratified
Simple
1 layer of cells
*absorption, secretion, and filtration
Stratified
more than one layer
-serves as protection
Shape of epithelial cells
squamos, cuboidal, and columnar
Connective Tissue
connect different structures of the body
Types of connective tissue?
bone, cartilage, adipose, and blood vessel
Muscle Tissue
producing movement
3 types of muscle tissue
skeletal
cardiac
smooth
Skeletal muscle
supports voluntary movement
Smooth muscle
"involuntary movement" found in walls of hollow organs: intestines, blood vessels, bladder, and uterus
Cardia Muscle
heart only
Nervous Tissue
provides structure of brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Capillaries
transport blood from arteries to veins: where the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, fluid and nutrients
Right side of the Heart
Tricuspid and pulmonary valves
Left side of the Heart
mitral and aortic valves
Cilia
tiny hairs in the bronchial tubes that keep airway clear by removing unwanted matter
Alveoli
tiny sacs that are surround by capillaries that allow the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Inspiration
muscle contracts to take in air
Expiration
diaphragm relaxes, and forced out of body
Nervous System contains two systems:
1. Central Nervous System
2. Peripheral Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
PNS
Dived into autonomic nervous system and sensory-somatic nervous system.
Autonomic nervous system
controls automatic body functions: ex heartbeat and digestion
Autonomic nervous system has two types of nerves:
1. Sympathetic nerves
2. Parasympathetic nerves
Sympathetic Nerves
Active when frightened or scared
Parasympathetic Nerves
Active when eating or at rest
Sensory-Somatic Nervous System
Consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Small intestines is made up of:
Duodenum
Jejunum
ileum
Enzymes
chemicals that break down proteins, carbs, and fats into nutrients so it can be absorbed into the bloodstream
Salivary amylase
Chemical digestion of carbs (mouth)
Stomach lining consists of what??
mucus for lubrication, protease (protein digestion), hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
Duodenum releases two hormones?
secretin and CCK
Secretin
Travels to pancreas to release bicarbonate. Which neutralizes the stomach aid and helps further aid digestion
Deductive Reasoning
conclusions follow from general principles
Inductive Reasoning
arriving at general principles from specific facts
Stomach lining secretes...
protease (protein digestion), hydrochloric acid, and intrinsic factor ( increases the stomach absorption rate of B12
Secretin
travels to pancreas to trigger release of bicarbonate (neutralizes stomach acid)& futher aid in digestion
CCK
initiates bile release from gallbladder and while decreasing mobility and acid production
Immune System defenses
1. Innate (nonspecific)
2. Adaptive (specific)
Innate
1st line of defense and 2nd line
Adaptive
3rd line of defense
Innate 1st line:
includes physical and chemical barriers (happens the same way every time)
2nd line of defense
fever, inflammation, phagocytosis, NK cells, interferons, chemotaxis, and release of cytokines
phagocytosis
engulfing of pathogens by white blood cells
Natural Killer Cells (NK)
produce perforins (pore-forming proteins) that target cancer and virus cells that cause these cells to lyse
Interferons
body's response to a viral infection and prevent replication of the virus 7-10 days (also activates NK and and macrophages)
Chemotaxis
leukocytes (white blood cells) respond to damaged body tissues..done in part with cytokines
Cytokines
chemical messengers that are released by damaged tissues
Diapedesis
process of white blood cells squeeze through capillary sites in response to cytokines
Adaptive (3rd line)
Humoral, antibody mediated, and cell-mediated responses
antibody mediated
include antibodies that are produced for specific for the invading antigen