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141 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Adjective
a descriptive word that modifies a noun or pronoun
Adverb
a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb and indicates when, how, where, why, or how much
commonly end in -ly
Article
a word that is used to limit a noun, either indefinite (a and an) or definite (the)
Clause
a group of words that are related and contain both a subject and a verb
Direct object
the noun or pronoun that receives that action of the verb and answer the question whom, or what
Noun
a word for a person, place, or thing
Object of the preposition
the noun, pronoun, phrase, or clause to which the preposition refers
Phrase
a group of words that are related but do not contain a verb and a subject together
Possessive pronoun
a pronoun used to indicate ownership
first person - (singular) mine and my, (plural) our and ours
second person - (singular) your and yours, (plural) your and yours
third person - (singular) her, hers, his, and its, (plural) their and theirs
Preposition
a word such as by, at, to, or from that gives additional information, usually in relationship to something else in the sentence
The boy can sit ON the box, BY the box, ABOVE the box, BELOW the box, AROUND the box, or NEAR the box.
Pronoun
a word that replaces and refers to a noun
Subject
a noun or pronoun that performs the action of the verb. If a sentence contains a verb of being or a linking verb such as be, feel, become, or look, the subject of the sentence is the noun or pronoun being described.
Verb
a word that shows an action or a state of being
Auxiliary verb
the use of a verb to add functional or grammatical content in addition to that information expressed via the main verb of the construction in which it appears
have is the auxiliary verb in have been
Antecedent
the noun that a pronoun refers back to
Gendered language
language that specifies male or female gender using words such as he or she
Frequently, people will use they or them as a singular pronoun to avoid using gendered language. This practice is increasingly common, but considered incorrect in most writing guides.
Indirect dialogue
tells about what someone said
Direct dialogue
tells exactly what someone said rather than telling about it
Attributive tag
part of a sentence that indicates who said a direct quote
Point of view
the perspective from which an author writes
First person
perspective in which the narrator is the one speaking, evidenced by the use of the first person pronoun I or we
Third person
perspective in which the narrator is distanced from the story and tells it as an outsider; third-person pronouns such as he, she, or they
Second person
perspective in which the writer directly addresses the reader using the pronoun you
Coordinating conjunctions
words that join two or more words, phrases, or clauses so that each conjoined element is equal. The coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so (FANBOYS).
Subordinating conjunction
a word that joins two or more clauses and makes the clause that contains it dependent on another clause, and therefore of slightly less importance; there are many subordinating conjunctions, but some common ones are because, though, although, while, if, and as if
Nominalization
changing a verb, adverb, or adjective to a noun
Active verbs
verb that shows an action performed by the subject of the sentence
Audience
the person or people who will be reading the piece of writing
Passive verb
comprised of be plus a past participle that shifts the action of a sentence from the subject to the object
Definition - clue context
the definition of the unfamiliar word is given in the sentence.
Ex. In his woodworking, he used a type of file known as a RASP.
Description - clue context
a description of the unfamiliar word is given in the sentence
Allen is a MALCONTENT; he is constantly changing jobs, moving to different apartments, and trading in cars. He complains and expresses his dissatisfaction with every aspect of life.
Example - clue context
examples of the unfamiliar word are given in the sentence
The menu listed such DELICACIES as frog legs, octopi, and chocolate-flavored worms.
Synonym - clue context
a synonym of the unfamiliar word is given in the sentence
The OPHTHALMOLOGIST, or eye doctor, prescribed eyedrops.
Antonym - clue context
an antonym of the unfamiliar word is given in the sentence
Unlike the sophisticated life in the city, life in Scottsville was a QUAINT existence.
Comparison - clue context
a comparison is used in the sentence that helps give meaning to the unfamiliar word
Elliott is wealthy and generous as is his father, who is a PHILANTHROPIST.
Contrast - context clue
the unfamiliar word is contrasted to known words or phrases
The instructor would often DEVIATE from the topic, rather than remain focused on the subject he introduced at the beginning of the lecture.
Explanation - context clue
the unfamiliar word is defined in the sentence through an explanation of a situation
He was awarded a degree POSTHUMOUSLY; he died a month before graduation.
Word structure
the way in which the parts of a word are arranged together
Etymology
the history of a given word or its origin
Root word
a word in its simplest form, before any affixes are attached
Prefix
a group of letters added to the beginning of a word that modifies or extends the word's meaning
Suffix
a group of letters added to the end of a word that modifies or extends the word's meaning
Prefix
un-
not
unavailable, unarmed, unattractive
Prefix
re-
again
reacquaint, readjust
Prefix
in-
not
invisible, inaccurate
Prefix
dis-
not
disorganized, disagreeable
Suffix
-ia, -y
state or condition
amnesia, democracy
Suffix
-ic, -ical, ac-
having to do with
endoscopic, physical, cardiac
Suffix
-ism
belief in
nationalism, activism
Suffix
-ology
the study of
archeology, bacteriology
Suffix
-or, er
one who takes part in
conductor, reporter, fighter
Root
arch
ruler
archenemcy, tetrarch, hierarchical
Root
audio
sound
audiovisual, audiocassette
Root
bio
life
biochemistry, biodegradable
Root
chrom
color
monochrome
Root
geo
earth
geometry, geode, geologic
Root
graph
written
biographic, calligraphy, mimeograph
Root
morph
form
endomorph, isomorphic, morphine
Root
ortho
correct
orthodontia, unorthodox
Root
ped
foot
backpedal, millipede
Root
terra
earth
terrace, terrarium, extraterrestrial
Root
therm
heat
exothermal, endothermic, geothermal
Simple sentence
a sentence that contains only one clause that has a complete meaning
Independent clause
a clause that has a complete meaning
Dependent clause
a clause that is made dependent or incomplete because of the addition of a subordinating conjuction
Complex sentences
a sentence that contains one or more dependent clauses
Verbal
a word that is sometimes a verb but not acting as a verb in a particular sentence
Compound sentence
a sentence containing two (or more) independent clauses joined together with a coordinating conjunction or a semicolon
Paragraph
a group of sentences that forms a cohesive whole due to its similar topic or theme
Topic sentence
generally at or near the beginning of a paragraph; gives the topic or point of the paragraph and often explains that topic in relation to the overall theme of the writing
Transition
smooth movement from one idea to the next, from one sentence to the next, or from one paragraph to the next
transition words include additionally, finally, similarly, next, however, and furthermore
Support
examples and details that explain the topic of a paragraph; follows the topic sentence
Periodic sentence
independent clause is delayed until the end of the sentence and is often preceded by parallel strings of modifiers
Cumulative sentence
(loose sentence)
contains an independent clause followed by a parallel string of modifiers; modifiers may be adjectives, prepositional phrases, or dependent clauses
ie and ei words
i before e, except after c- or when sounded like a as in words neighbor and weigh
Suffixes for words ending in e
If a word ends in a silent e and the added suffix BEGINS WITH A CONSONANT, then keep the letter e when adding the suffix.

If added suffix BEGINS WITH A VOWEL, then drop the letter e when adding the suffix
Suffixes for words ending in y
If a word ends with a y PRECEDED BY A VOWEL, keep the y adding a suffix.

If a word ends with a y PRECEDED BY A CONSONANT, change the y to an i before adding a suffix.
Suffixes for words ending in a consonant-vowel-consonant pattern
If a word has ONE SYLLABLE and ends with a consonant-vowel-consonant pattern, then double the final consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel.

If a word has MORE THAN ONE SYLLABLE, BUT THE ACCENT IS ON THE LAST SYLLABLE, then double the final consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel.
Suffixes for words ending in c
If a word ends in a c and a suffix beginning with e, i, or y is added, then the letter k should be inserted following the letter c.
Words ending in -ceed, -sede, and -cede
In English there are four words that end in -ceed, and one word that ends in -sede. Other words with the same sound end in -cede.
-ceed
emceed
exceed
proceed
succeed

-sede
supersede

-cede
accede
antecede
concede
intercede
recede
retrocede
Words ending in -able or -ible
If the ROOT WORD IS A COMPLETE WORD, then add -able. (If the ROOT ENDS IN E, drop the e before adding -able.)

If the ROOT WORD IS NOT A COMPLETE WORD, then add -ible.
Words ending in -ance, -ancy, -ant or -ence, -ency, -ent
If the SUFFIX IS PRECEDED BY A HARD C OR G SOUND, then the suffix is -ance, -ancy, or -ant.

If the SUFFIX IS PRECEDED BY A SOFT C OR G SOUND, then the suffix is -ence, -ency, or -ent.
Words ending in -tion, -sion, or -cian
If the ROOT WORD ENDS IN -T, then the suffix -tion can be added.

If the ROOT WORD ENDS IN -S, then the suffix -sion can be added.

If A WORD NAMES A PERSON, then it should end in -cian.
affect
verb - to have an effect on
effect
noun - something that is brought about by a cause
ascent
noun - a slope that angles upward
assent
noun - agreement
all ready
adjective - everyone or everything is ready
already
adverb - by this time
all together
adjective - everyone in a group
altogether
adverb - entirely, completely
altar
noun - a structure used in worship
alter
verb - to change
bear
verb - to carry or support
bare
verb - to expose
capital
noun - a leading or governing city
capitol
noun - a building that houses a state's lawmakers
cite
verb - to use as an example; to quote
site
noun - a location
complement
noun - an element that completes
compliment
noun - a remark of appreciation
council
noun - a body of people assembled for advice
counsel
noun - advice
descent
noun - a slope that angles downward
dissent
noun - disagreement
dying
verb - ceasing to live
dyeing
verb - coloring a fabric
forth
adverb - forward in place or time
fourth
noun - the element in a series that is next after the third element
principal
noun - chief or leader
principle
noun - a belief or a rule of conduct
stationary
adjective - not moving
stationery
noun - paper for writing letters
their
adjective - belonging to them
they're
contraction of they are
there
adjective - in that place
to
preposition - indicates movement or intent
too
adverb - also
two
adjective - something that has two units
whose
adjective - belonging to whom
who's
contraction of who is
your
adjective - belonging to you
you're
contraction of you are
Capitalize geographical locations
such as cities, continents, counties, countries, islands, peninsulas, beaches, bodies of water, mountains, streets, parks, forests, canyons, dams, sections of the country or world, city streets, parks, and buildings
Capitalize the cardinal direction and their compounds when they refer to particular regions
Ex. West Canada
the South
Capitalize the names of specific organizations, companies, institutions and government bodies
Spanish Club (organization)
Ford Foundation (company)
University of New Mexico (institution)
Department of Defense (government body)
Capitalize the names of historical events or documents, months, days of the week, special events, and calendar items.
French Revolution (historical event)
Atlantic Pact (historical document)
August (Month)
Sunday (day of the week)
World Series (special event)
Christmas Eve (calendar item)
Capitalize the names of nationalities, races, and religions
Turkish (nationality)
African-American (race)
Muslim (religion)
Capitalize the names of monuments, ships, planes, and awards
Longfellow Monument (monument)
Mayflower (ship)
Purple Heart (award)
Capital proper names and titles of rank or honor
Dr. Larry Smith
General Marcus Clark
President Lincoln
J. Weston Walsch
Reverend John Thompson
Queen Elizabeth
Capitalize words showing family relationship when they are parts of titles or when they can be substituted for proper nouns
Uncle Elson
Cousin Li
Aunt Margaret
Capitalize the main words in the titles of books and poems, plays, articles, musical compositions, chapters of books, etc.
the New York Times (newspaper)
A Tale of Two Cities (play)
Computers for Dummies (book)
Moonlight Sonata (musical composition)
Capitalize words referring to specific deities
Lord
Savior
Messiah
Shiva
Yahweh
Shango
Osiris
Allah
Capitalize the first word in every line of poetry and the first word of a complete quotation
Twinkle, twinkle little star,
How I wonder what you are.

Mr. Jackson said, "You will always remember your high school days with fond recollection."
Capitalize the names of season only if they are personified or are part of a specific event. Otherwise, they are not capitalized.
(1) "Heralded in trumpet blare, comes Spring across the threshold in scented frock and maiden hair."

(2) My favorite season is summer.

(3) I can't wait for the Winter Olympics.
Ellipses [...]
used to suggest hesitation, attempts to conceal something, signal a trailing or unfinished thought, indicate difficulty in directly expressing oneself, or denote the omission of part of an original material within a quotation
Commas [,]
Any two words or phrases in a series of three or more should be separated by a comma.

When a dependent clause precedes an independent clause in a complex sentence, a comma should separate the two.

The introductory words yes and no should be set apart by commas.

Nonrestrictive phrases and nonrestrictive clauses (groups of words that do not contain information that is necessary to interpreting that meaning of the sentence) should be offset by commas.

Use commas to separate a quotation from interrupting text.

A comma should be used to separate a city from state. In text, a comma should also follow the state.

Commas should be used within dates to separate two textual elements or two numerical elements that appear next to each other.
Semicolons [;]
A semicolon may be placed between two related, independent clauses.

Use a semicolon to precede conjunctive adverbs, such as however or therefore, that connect sentences elements of equal rank.

When a sentence contains a series of elements that contain one or more commas, the division between the elements should be marked with a semicolon.
Colons [ : ]
A colon should be used to herald something that is to immediately follow an independent clause. Often, this information comes in the form of a list.

The colon should be used to separate the hour from the minute when expressing standard time.

A colon should follow the salutation of a formal letter.

A colon should be used between the title and subtitle of a book.

A colon should be used between the title and subtitle of a book.

A colon can be used between two independent clauses if the second explains, expands upon, or illustrates a point made in the first
Hyphens [ - ]
Use a hyphen to divide a word at the end of a line when it is necessary for stylistic purposes and the entire word will not fit on one line. If this must be done, words should be divided between syllables and writers should avoid leaving fewer than three letters on either line. If possible, hyphenated words should be divided at the hyphen.

Use hyphens with spelled-out compounds numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine if they function as adjectives.

Use hyphens with fractions that are spelled out and used as adjectives.

A hyphen should be used to join any prefix to a proper adjective or noun.

Although many prefixes do not require the use of hyphens, there are some prefixes that should always be hyphenenated. Consult style guides for individualized, complete lists.

Hyphenate a compound adjective when it precedes the word it modifies and when doing so helps to clarify.

Use a hyphen to prevent confusion or awkwardness.
Parentheses [ ( ) ]
Parantheses are used to enclose supplementary or explanatory material that interrupts the main sentence.

If the material inside of a pair of parentheses is a question, then a question mark should be inserted within the parentheses. If the material is an exclamation, an exclamation point should be inserted inside within the parentheses. This applies regardless of where the parentheses are located within the sentence.

If the material withing a pair of parentheses is a complete sentence that is not located within another sentence, a period should be added before the closing parenthesis.