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Scientific Investigations

involve critical thinking
establish sound procedures in a variety of areas
conducted to identify potential problems and to create procedures for emergency situations. This proactive approach can save lives.

If existing procedure fails to solve problem. Which can lead to new solutions not previously considered. Leading to radically new designs that improve the quality of life.

quantitative

numerical

Scientific Method Order

1. Problem Identification
2. Question Asking
3. Hypothesis Development
4. Data Collection and Hypothesis
5. Analysis
6. Conclusion

hypothesis

explanation formulated to answer the questions being investigated

Steps for forming a hypothesis

1. Identify the problem
2. Ask questions
3. Formulate a hypothesis

Data Collection Steps

1. Observation
2. Measurement
3. Samples
4. Organization

Experimentation

Involves comparing a control group to an experimental group.

deductive reasoning

when conclusions follow a general principle.

inductive reasoning

when conclusions are formed from specific facts.

anatomy

study of the structure of organs and body systems

physiology

the study of the function of the organs and body systems

atoms

smallest parts of elements that still retain all the original properties of the element

molecule

a chemical bonding of atoms that posess its own characteristics independent of the atoms themselves

Cells

formed when specific molecules combine together.

basic unit of all life

Tissues

cells combine in terms of function and type to form tissues.

Organ

2 or more tissues collaborate to perform a specific function

Organ system

When organs work together to complete a specific task

organism

highest level of organization... happens when organ systems work together within the body

4 Tissue Types

1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscle
4. Nervous

Epethelial Tissue Functions

1. Provide covering
2. Produce secretions

Characteristics of Epethelial Tissue

Exists in sheets
Does not have a blood supply
Regenerates easily

Epethelial Tissue Categorization

1. Number of cell layers
2. Cell Shape

Simple Epethelium

1 layer of cells
Found in body structures where aborption, secretion, and filtration occur.

Shapes of epethilial cells

squamous
cuboidal
columnar

Stratified Epithilium

more than one layer of cells
serves as protection

Connective Tissue

Connects different structures of the body
Usually has its own blood supply (excep. ligaments)

Types of Connective Tissue

bone
cartilage
adipose (fat)
blood vessel

Muscle Tissue

Produces movement

Three types of muscle tissue

skeletal
cardiac
smooth

Skeletal Muscle

support voluntary movement since it is connected to the skeletal system.

Smooth Muscle

Involuntary control
Found in hollow organs such as intestines, blood vessels, bladder, uterus.

Cardiac Muscle

involuntary
only found in the heart

Nervous Tissue

Provides structure for the brain, spinal cord and nerves.

Nerves

composed of neurons that send electrical impulses throughout the body.

Myelin

Protects the nervous tissue

Circulatory System
(what it includes)

AKA cardiovascular system
Consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

Digestive System
(what it includes)

Includes all the organs from the mouth to the anus that involve the ingestion and breakdown of food.

The _______ system manufactures enzymes that break down food so that the _______ can be easily passed into the blood for use throughout the body.

digestive, nutrients

Where does absorption of nutrients take place?

small intestine

Parts of the small intestine

duodenum
jejunum
ileum

Function of Liver

Produce bile that breaks down fats

Function of Pancreas

Delivers enzymes to the small intestine that aid in digestion.

Endocrine System
fx

Serves to control body functions.
Glands in the endocrine system secrete hormones that travel through the blood to organs throughout the body.

Integumentary System
(what it includes)

Consists of skin, mucus membranes, hair and nails.

Integumentary System
fx

protects internal tissues from injury, waterproofs the body, and helps to regulate body temperature.
Serves as a barrier to pathogens.

Lymphatic System
(what it includes)

lymph nodes
lymph vessels that carry lymph
spleen
thymus
tonsils

Lymphatic Stystem
fx

Supports the immune system by housing and transporting white blood cells to and from lymph nodes.
Returns fluid that has leaked from the cardiovascular system back into the blood vessels.

Muscular system
(what it includes)

skeletal muscles
tendons
ligaments

(cardiac and smooth muscles are NOT included in this organ system)

Tendons

connect muscles to bones

Ligaments

attach bones together to form joints

Nervous System
(what it includes)

brain
spinal cord
nerves

Nervous System
fx

bodies control system

Reproductive System
fx

Produce offspring

Reproductive System
(what it includes)

testes
penis
ovaries
vagina
breasts

Respiratory System
fx

Keeps the bodies cells supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide as it is released from cells.

Repiratory System
(what it includes)

nasal cavity
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
lungs

Alveoli

tiny air sacs within the lungs.
Through the walls of the alveoli oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of the lungs through small blood vessels called arterioles.

Skeletal System
fx

provides support and protection for the body and its organs
Supplies a framework that when used in conjunction with the muscles creates movement.
Serves as a storage system for minerals such as calcium and phosphorous.

Skeletal System
(what it includes)

bones
cartilage
ligaments
joints

Urinary System
fx

helps maintain the water and electrolyte balance within the body
Regulates the acid-base balance of the blood
Removes all nitrogen-containing wastes from the body.

Anatomical position

a standard position in which the body is facing forward, the feet are parralel to each other and the arms are at the sides with the palms facing upward.

Superior

toward the upper end of the body

Inferior

toward the lower end of the body

Anterior

toward the front of the body

Posterior

toward the back of the body

Medial

toward the middle of the body

Lateral

toward the outer sides of the body

Intermediate

between medial and lateral

Proximal

close to the origin of the body part or point of attachment

Distal

away from the origin of the body part or point of attachment

Superficial

toward or at the body surface

Deep

away from or below the body surface

Sagittal Section

cut made a longitudinal plane dividing the body into right and left parts

Midsagittal Section

saggital section made down the median of the body

Transverse Section

cut made along the horizontal plane to divide the body into upper and lower regions

Frontal section

Cut made along a longitudinal plane that divides the body into front and back regions

Dorsal Body Cavity

contains the cranial cavity and spinal column

Ventral Body Cavity

contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen; diaphragm divides the ventral cavity into the thoracic cavity (superior to the diaphragm); below the diaphragm are the abdominal and pelvic cavities

Adaption

receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous system

Circulation

transport oxygen and other nutrients to tissues via the cardiovascular system

Elimination

remove metabolic wastes from the body renal system

Locomotion

allow voluntary and involuntary movement of the body via the musculosketal and neurological systems

Nutrition

take in and break down nutrients to be used for metabolism via the digestive system

Oxygenation

take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide via the repiratory system

Regulation

hormonal control of body functions via the endocrine system

Self-Duplication

production of offspring via the reproductive system

Maintaining Boundries

The cells in the human body are eukaryotic cells, which means they are surrounded by a membrane as are organelles inside the cells. The membrane, which is semipermeable, allows some substances to pass through while restricting others. The integumentary system that surrounds the entire body protects it from environmental stimuli and pathogens.

Responding to Environmental Changes

The human body has the ability to sense and repond to environmental stimuli, both voluntarily and involuntarily. An individual's ability to physically move away from danger is an example of a voluntary response. The hand's ability to withdraw from painful stimuli before the brain percieves the pain is an example of an involuntary reflex response.

Moving

The primary purpose of muscular tissue is to support movement of the body. The muscular system moves the bones in the skeletal system and this movement is voluntary. The muscular tissues in the cardiovascular, digestive, reproductive, urinary, reproductive, urinary, and respiratory systems also support movements and this movement is involuntary.

Ingesting and Digesting

The organs in the digestive system work to remove nutrients from food in the digestive system, the waste that remains is excreted from the body using organs in both the digestive system amd the urinary system.

Reproducing

reproductive system plays a key role in reproduction, and hormones regulate this process.

Growing

Growth occurs due to changes in several body systems.
The skeletal and muscular systems change shape. The digestive system removes needed nutrients from food. The cardiovascular system transports these nutrients to the cells. The endocrine system releases hormones that signal when and how much growth should occur.

Excreting

Once nutrients have been removed from food in the digestive system, the waste that remains is excreted from the body using organs in both the urinary and digestive system.

Metabolizing

Metabolizing is the use of energy by cells as a result of chemical reactions within the cells. The digestive and respiratory systems supply the nutrients and oxygen that the body needs to support metabolism. The blood distributes these materials throughout the body and hormones secreted by the glands of the endocrine system regulate the body's metabolism.

Circulatory System
fx

It supports the circulation and distribution of various substances throughout the body.

homeostasis

when all the needs of the body are met and all the organ systems are working properly, the body is in a stable state

heart

contracts and pumps blood throughout the body. Rhythmic contractions of the heart enable blood to be transported throughout the body.

arteries

blood vessels that transport blood from the capillaries back to the heart

capillaries

tiny blood vessels that transport blood from arteries to veins within the body.
Also serve as the location for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, fluid, and nutrients within the body.

4 Chambers of the heart

Right atrium
Left atrium
Right ventricle
Left ventricle

4 Valves of the Heart

Prevent the flow of blood back into the heart's chambers after a contraction.
Tricuspid (R)
Pulmonary (R)
Mitral (L)
Aortic (L)

Flow of blood through the heart

Deoxygenated blood enters the heart through the superior and inferior vena cava. The blood travels into the right atrium and, during the contraction of the atrium, flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The blood is pushed through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery and lungs when the right ventricle contracts. Here, it picks up oxygen. The oxygenated blood is then carried back to the heart (by the pulmonary veins), into the left atrium, through the mitral valve, and into the left ventricle. Contraction of the left ventricle forces the blood through the aortic valve, through the aorta, and out to the body.

lungs
fx

breathing in oxygen
exhaling carbon dioxide

The respiratory system supplies the body with _______ and removes _______.

oxygen, carbon dioxide

It is through the walls of the ______ that oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of the capillaries in the lungs.

alveoli

Inspiration

Act of taking in oxygenated air

Expiration

When oxygen is forced out of the body

Central Nervous System

brain
spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System

cranial and spinal verves that extend beyond the CNS

Autonomic Nervous System

controls body functions, like heartbeat and digestion

Sympathatic nerves

active when a person is excited or scared

Parasympathetic nerves

active when a person is eating or at rest

sensory-somatic nervous system
(what its made of)

12 pairs of cranial nerves
31 pairs of spinal nerves
ganglia (collections of nerve cell bodies)

sensory-somatic nervous system
fx

controls voluntary actions like talking and walking

dendrites

recieve stimuli from the internal and external environment... take stimuli to neurons

neurons

specialized cells that make up the nervous system and transmit messages

axon

connects one neuron with another neuron over a fluid filled gap called a synapse