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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What happens at secondary lymphoid organs?
B and T cells recognize foreign antigens presented by macrophages and dendritic cells
What do you need to have an effective immune response?
T cell activation
What enables T cells to migrate from thymus to lymph nodes?
chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions and adhesion molecules
What 3 signals must a naive T cell receive once in the lymph node?
1. TCR signaling after it reacts w/ peptide/HLA
2. CD28 interactions w/ B7-1 and B7-2 (costimulatory molecules)
3. Cytokine receptor signaling after binding w/ IL-2 growth factor released by activated T cells
What are two types of effector T cells?
Helper - secrete cytokines
- help B cells become plasma cells to produce Ab
- help cytotoxic T cells become effector cells

Cytotoxic - circulate, recognize MHC I cells, and kill
- once activate, secrete interferon
Steps of T cell receptor signaling?
- T cells cluster
- conformational changes in TCR/CD3 subunits
- initiates a protein tyrosine kinase pathway --> phosp. ITAMs
- ZAP-70/Syk kinases bound to ITAMs phosp. downstream signaling components
What do immunosuppressive drugs target?
the calcineurin pathway
- cyclosporin, FK506
bind to calcineurin, block NFAT activation
What generates a positive signal? (2)

What does it result in?
1. T cell receives signal 1 by recognizing MHC/peptide via TCR

2. receives signal 2 by engagement of the co-stimulatory molecule with its ligand

- release of IL-2 and expression of high affinity IL-2 receptors
What is the autocrine loop?
binding of IL-2 to IL-2 receptors that initates a cascade leading to further differentiation of the Tcell
What does the binding of integrin to its receptors do?
strengthens the avidity of interaction of the two cells (APC and Tcell)
What is anergy?

Where is this important?
TCR-MHC/peptide interaction occurs WITHOUT co-stimulatory signal --> cell is anergized (tolerized) --> no longer differentiate/ will die

- periphery, where self-reactive T cells reside
What 3 types of molecules are involved in the interactions b/w T cells an APC's?
1. TCR's recognize MHC + peptide
2. adhesion molecules "glue" the two cells together
3. co-stimulatory molecules (CS) receptors (R) and ligands (L) interact
What is the difference b/w B7 interacting w/ CTLA and CD28?
B7/CTLA - inhibitory interaction, occurs after T cell activation

B7/CD28 - stimulatory, when T cells initially interact
What are 5 subtypes of helper T cells?
Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg, Tfh
What are some subtypes of Cytotoxic T cells?
CD8 aa Treg
Characteristics of NK T cells
1. Express an invariant TCR (Va18/Ja24)
2. can be CD4+ or CD4-
3. Recognize glycolipids bound by CD1d
4. Produce cytokines such as IL-4 and g-IFN w/in minutes of stimulation
5. Recognize a diacylglycerol glycolipid from Borrelia burgdorferi
Naive CD4 T-cell + IL-12 = ?

transcription factor?

what cytokine does it secrete?
Th1 cell


Naive CD4 T-cell + IL-4, IL-25 = ?

what cytokine does it secrete?


IL-4, 5, 13
Naive CD4 T-cell + IL-1, 6, TGF-B = ?

what cytokine does it secrete?


Naive CD4 T-cell + Foxp3 = ?

what cytokine does it secrete?


IL-6, 10
What cells stimulate macrophages, NK, and CD8 cells?
Which Ig do Th2's work with?
IgE to stimulate eosinophils, basophils, mast cells
What do Th2 cells do?
1. stimulate B cells
2. stimulate antibody switching
3. stimulate Eosinophils, basophils, mast cells via IgE
Which cell secretes inhibitory cytokines?
What does Th17 do?
- activate neutrophils
- fight extracellular pathogens
a. cell source
b. effects
a. Macrophage/T cell
b. Inflammation/fever, acute
a. cell source
b. effects
a. Macrophage, T cell, Endothelium, epithelium
b. Inflammation, fever (acute), Th17 differentiation
a. cell source
b. effects
a. Macrophage, Dendritic cell
b. Th1 differentiation, NK activation
a. cell source
b. effects
a. Macrophage, fibroblast
b. Antiviral, induce class I
a. cell source
b. effects
a. Macrophage, T cell
b. Blocks IL-12, induce class II
a. cell source
b. effects
a. macrophage, endothelium, T cell
b. Livier acute phase
a. cell source
b. effects
a. macrophage
b. NK, CD8 proliferation
a. cell source
b. effects
a. Macrophage
b. NK, T secretion of IFN
a. cell source
b. effects
a. Macrophage, dendritic cell
b. Th17
a. cell source
b. effects
a. Macrophage, dendritic cell
b. Block Th1
What does TNF secretion cause in low quantities?

a. endothelial cell
b. leukocyte
Local inflammation

a. Express adhesion molecules, secrete IL-1, chemokines
b. Macrophage activation
What does TNF secretion cause in medium quantities?

a. Brain
b. Liver
c. Bone Marrow
Systemic effects

a. Fever
B. Acute phase proteins secreted
C. Release of leukocytes
What does TNF secretion cause in high quantities?

a. Heart
b. Blood vessel
c. Liver
Septic shock

a. Low output
b. Thrombus, low resistance (low BP)
c. Hypoglycemia
What makes naive CD4 cells --> Th1 cells?
What do Th1 cells secrete?

What does this stimulate? (4)
IFN - gamma, TNF

1. Stimulates macrophages to phagocytose and kill the bacteria
2. Enhances anti-viral responsiveness of cells
3. Increases HLA expression
4. Changes the antigen processing components of the proteosome
What is the effect of TH1 cells on B cells?
TH1 release IFN-gamma --> complement-binding and opsonizing antibodies
What makes Th2 cells develop?
What do Th2 cells secrete?

IL-3, -4, -5, -13, and express CCR3

1. Promotes Ig class switching and B cell expansion --> help B cells make antibody responses
2. Critical for immune responses against extracellular pathogens
3. Promote IgE secretion
4. Activate mast cells, basophils
5. Release of mucous
What makes Th17 cells develop?

What is special about this pathway in an immune response?
IL-1 and TGF-B

First adaptive pathway in the course of an immune response
What do Th17 cells secrete?

What does it do?
IL-17, IL-21, IL-22

Il-17 recruits neutrophils

Receptor is on most cells, release CXCL8 and CXCL2
What is pleiotropism?

Same type of cytokine can have different effects on different cells

IL-4 to B cell --> IgE production
IL-4 to CD4 T cell --> Th2 development
What is redundancy?

2 different cytokines have same effect

IL-2 and IL-4 both cause B-cell proliferation
What is Synergy?

2 different cytokines have 1 synergistic effect

IFN-gamma and TNF both increase the expression of class I MHC molecules on many cell types
What is antagonism?

Example for macrophages?
Cytokines antagonize each other

IFN-g activates macrophages
IL-10 inhibits macrophages
What is the oxidative burst?
Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH phagocyte oxidase complex (phox proteins)

Makes NO, O2, also bacteriacidal
What are the functions of Treg cells?

What is the transcription factor in their development?
Suppress T cell activation of self, function in peripheral tolerance

What are CD8 cells?

What does their expansion require?
Cytotoxic T cells or killer T cells

Expansion requires IL-2
What do CD8 cells release?
granzyme and perforin to lyse the target cell; also activates caspase