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33 Cards in this Set

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Inequality - the differences among individuals or groups that affect their access to opportunities and privileges

Structured inequality - which refers to the way in which these differences are built into the way people interact with each other, on a recurring basis

Class - which are defined by their relations to each other, and to the productive process.

Relations of production - The bourgeoisie, or the capitalist class owns the means of production, which is productive property, or the tools and materials we need to do our work. The proletariat, or the workers, don’t own productive property.

Power - the ability of individuals or groups to have their way in the face of opposition.

Repressive and liberating dimensions of power

Globalization - our current economy of global production and consumption organized by international corporations and conglomerates and dependent on instantaneous global communications and converging global lifestyles and cultures.

Anti-essentialism - which refers to understanding that the experience of groups and the individuals in them are not homogeneous or stable.

Intersectionality - means that individuals belong to not one, but many social categories and live in spaces where these categories intersect.

Paradigm - a widely-accepted way of understanding the world. A racial paradigm, for example, views the world as populated by many races, but doesn’t question where the idea of races came from.

Colorism - discrimination against people of darker skin colour, within the Black community.

Segregated schools -

Separate schools - a type of school that has constitutional status. In these Canadian jurisdictions, a separate school is one operated by a civil authority

little black school house - multi-voiced narrative. Two categories of people appear: individuals who either taught in, had been students, or were the parents of children who attended segregated schools, and knowledgeable historians and educators who situate these schools within the broader socio-political context.

Relational understanding of class - proletariat, or the workers, don’t own productive property. They sell their labour power to the bourgeoisie for a wage.

Distributional understanding of class - the bourgeoisie enriches itself by exploiting the proletariat, specifically through paying them less than the value produced by their work.

Income Inequality - Canada income is distributed unevenly. the wealthy have been increasing their share of the national income

Wealth Inequality - Unlike income, wealth represents all a persons assets minus debts, these include cash, stock ,real estate, durable goods etc.

Power Inequality - the concentration of corporate wealth in Canada and the ways in which this wealth is used to increase the political power of Canada’s corporate elite.

Inequality in access to paid work - how class, age,gender, race and ethnicity (and we should add dis/ability, immigration status and sexuality) influence the access of Canadians to paid employment.

Inequality in Education - many social thinkers have expected that free education would level social inequality by giving all children basic literacy, numeracy and discipline.

Dysfunctional Societies -

Social Status - relationships whichare based on inequality and equality, especially social status which denotes inequality

Friendship - friendship, a relationship of sharing and mutuality.

Sociability -

Altruistic Punishment - altruistic punishment, the desire to punish unfair behaviour, even at a personal cost.

The Social Brain - the importance of social relationships. And, in doing so, they remind us of the importance of sociology for understanding the world we live in - how we can find our way through it, and how we can make it better.

Counter-dominance strategies - Hunter-gatherer societies maintain equality, using counter-dominance strategies which include a wide range of behaviours, from teasing to violence and ostracism.

Epigenetic Processes - epigenetic processes in which early experiences can switch some genes on or off in animals.

Mirror Neuron - mirror neurons which imitate the actions fire off in our brains. This biological process helps us to empathize with others.

Oxytoxin - romotes social behaviour involves the hormone oxytocin. Its production is stimulated by physical contact during sexual intercourse, childbirth and breastfeeding, and it promotes bonding and trust.

Business as a working community - that a good way to start making wealthy Western countries more equal is to encourage employee ownership and participation at the workplace. They expectthat this will lead to what they call business as a working community

Liberal democratic society - Canada is a liberal democratic society, in other words, a society that emphasizes equality, harmony and individual rights.

Culture of whiteness - which is a system in which white people and their culture and practices are considered superior and normal, while groups considered non-white and their cultures and practices are marginalized.

Imagined community - through multiculturalism, non whites are symbolically included in Canada’s imagined community. This concept refers to the way a nation is imagined by its citizens.

Democratic racism - a complex and conflicting ideology in which democratic ideas regarding equality and fairness co-exist with racist behaviour and attitudes.

Multiculturalism - which means the acceptance and promotion of cultural pluralism in Canada, and special services to address the needs of specific communities.

The increased incarceration of marginalized women - incarceration of racialized, lesbian and physically and mentally challenged women provide important information and analysis of a particularly vicious form of social inequality.

Healing and treatment programs in prisons - even with treatment programs, prisons are mainly penal institutions,the programs are developed by middle class professionals who don’t necessarily understand the life worlds and problems of the inmates,there’s no input from the inmates,the programs aren’t individualized

Labelling and its consequences in prison - labels tend to generate more labels, The labels often serve to have certain inmates moved to isolated cells which are very destructive to their mental health, and often exacerbate already existing mental health problems.

The gendered nature of crime - the criminalization of the survival skills that marginalized women have to rely on, and of the importance of moving marginalized women out of prisons and into communities which can provide the supports they need. Frances Henry and her colleagues argue that, in recent decades, the state has acted to contain racism, but simultaneously has been promoting it.

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - some of its criteria are subjective and susceptible to many interpretations [for example what is “reasonable” or “justified”], some concepts, such as “race” and “racism” are left undefined, it’s passive, it comes into play only when an individual or group brings a case to court, some areas of inequality are left unaddressed, it assumes that equality already exists, and just needs to be protected, using the courts to pursue violators is expensive.

Bill C-36 - it has become another form of racial profiling, or the targeting of racializedpersons by the police or other authorities

The Employment Equity Act - 1. it’s reverse discrimination(response: no, it’s just an end to a long history of discrimination in favour of white males),2. it ignores merit (response:no, it just eliminates irrelevant criteria such as skin colour),3. it stigmatizes minorities(response: no one thought that it stigmatized majorities when the best rewards were reserved for them),4. everyone should be treated the same way (response: ignoring differences and refusing to accommodate them is discrimination),5. this means hiring by quotas(response: no, it just means opening doors.)

Multicultural ideology - Multiculturalism is both an ideology and a set of government policies which value cultural diversity and provide special services to help groups maintain their cultures.

Special services for targeted groups

Racialization - designates “part of a process by which ethno-racial populations are categorized, constructed, thought inferior and marginalized”

Embedded agency - in intersecting social institutions and practices, including religion

Immigrants - who have the right to settle and acquire citizenship, including social and political rights.

Migrant workers - who are allowed only to remain in Canada temporarily and to work for a predetermined employer for below domestic minimum wage.

Guest workers -

Non-Immigrant Employment Authorization Program (NIEAP) - ideas voiced by parliamentarians made the presence in Canada of people with no political or social rights seem acceptable, normal, and not incompatible with our self image as a democratic country.

Common sense - or the way people spontaneously understand their lived experiences. Language used by members of parliament presents disenfranchised migrant labour as normal and even natural.

Good sense - or a clear-sighted understanding of what temporary migrant labour means in a Canadian context.

Bill C - 11 - presents migrant labour as not merely an economic and political issue, but also a security concern. Positioning migrant workers as a potential threat to Canadians exacerbates their racialization, and also legitimates expanding state powers of detention, surveillance and control over migrants, immigrants and refugees.

Mainstream feminism - liberal/mainstream feminists who were mostly middle and upper class women who sought to bring more women into mainstream institutions.

Radical feminism - radical feminists, often from less privileged groups who associated equality for women with structural changes.

The Persons Act - Emily Murphy, Irene Parlby, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney and Henrietta Muir Edwards. Their efforts culminated in the passing in 1929 of the Persons Act in which the women of Canada gained the status of persons.

National Action Committee on the Status of Women - 1970 saw the establishment of the (NAC). This organization, partly funded by the federal government, served as the official voice for women’s interests in Canada.

First Wave Feminism - The mobilization of women out of which these voting rights emerged in the late nineteenth- and early twentieth century is called first wave feminism.video.

Second Wave Feminism - second wave of feminist struggle throughout North America began in the 1960's.

Power - power as “the ability to act,” and power as “action that brings a sense of accomplishment.”

Women’s mobilization in Canada - From the beginning, it struggled with rifts, especially the conflictsbetween liberal/mainstream feminists who were mostly middle and upper classwomen who sought to bring more women into mainstream institutions and radicalfeminists, often from less privileged groups who associated equality for womenwith structural changess with

Feminism and oppression - white middle class women/mainstream feminists who, in the 1970's, claimed to represent the interests of all women, but actually pursued their own interests which were achieving equality with men of their own social class.hooks responds by offering her own vision of feminism, as a social movement to end domination in all relationships.

Feminism and power - She notes that middle class/mainstream feminists wanted to over come their fear of power. They accept the traditional concept of power as control over others, and they want to join men in controlling others within the existing institutions of capitalism. these women obtain power, they use it the same way that men do.

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