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10 Cards in this Set

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Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
The Supreme Court overturned the burglary conviction of Clarence Earl Gideon after he wrote to the court from his prison cell, explaining he was denied the right to an attorney at his 1963 trial.
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
The Supreme Court overturned the conviction of Dollree Mapp because the evidence collected against her was obtained during an illegal search. The ruling re-evaluated the Fourth Amendment, which protects citizens against unreasonable searches and seizures.

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional to separate students based on race.




Korematsu v. United States (1944)
Fred Korematsu, a Japanese-American man, was arrested after authorities found out that he claimed to be a Mexican-American to avoid an internment camp during WWII. The court ruled that the rights of an individual were not as important as the need to protect the country during wartime.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Homer Plessy was arrested when he refused to leave a whites-only train car, claiming he was 7/8 white and only 1/8 black. The Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities for blacks were constitutional, which remained the rule until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954.
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)

When Dred Scott asked a circuit court to reward him his freedom after moving to a free state, the Supreme Court ruled that Congress didn't have the right to prohibit slavery, and, further that those of African-American descent were not protected by the Constitution.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
This was the first case to establish Congress' power to regulate interstate commerce. The ruling signaled a shift in power from the states to the federal government. Aaron Ogden was given exclusive permission from the state of New York to navigate the waters between New York and certain New Jersey ports. When Ogden brought a lawsuit against Thomas Gibbons for operating steamships in his waters, the Supreme Court sided with Gibbons.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

In response to the federal government's controversial decision to institute a national bank in the state, Maryland tried to tax the bank out of business. When a federal bank cashier, James W. McCulloch, refused to pay the taxes, the state of Maryland filed charges against him. In this case, the Supreme Court ruled that chartering a bank was an implied power of the Constitution.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
When Secretary of State James Madison tried to stop Federal loyalists from being appointed to judicial positions, he was sued by William Marbury. Marbury was one of former President John Adams' appointees, and the could decided that, although he had a right to the position, the court couldn't enforce his appointment. The case defined the boundaries of the executive and judicial branches of government.
Hollingsworth v. Perry (2013)

The Supreme Court dismissed an appeal over California's Prop. 8 on jurisdictional grounds. The voter-approved ballot measure barring same-sex marriage was not defended by state officials, but rather a private party. This ruling cleared the way for same-sex marriage in California to resume, but left open-ended the legal language of 35 other states barring same-sex marriage.