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26 Cards in this Set

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What are autosomes? How many autosome pairs do humans have?

Autosomes are chomosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism. i.e Not X or Y.

Humans have 22 pairs. Equal to 44.

What are sex chromosomes? How many sex chromosome pairs do humans have?

Sex chromosomes are chromosomes that are directly involved in determining the sex of an organism. (i.e X or Y)


Humans have 1 pair of sex chromosomes. Equal to 2.

What are homologous chromosomes? How many homologous pairs do humans have?

Homologous chromosomes are a pair of chromosomes, on inherited from the mother and one from the father that carry allelles for the same genes.

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Equal to 46.

Define mitosis and state its function.

The division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei.


For growth, repair and maintenance.

Why do chromosomes duplicate?

Chromosomes duplicate so that when the cell reproduces into daughter cells, each daughter cell will have a copy of the genetic information.

What stage of mitosis do chromosomes duplicate.

Cells duplicate during interphase. Specifically in the S phase.

How many chromosomes does mitosis result in?

2n

Define meiosis and state its function.

Meiosis is the process of cell division that produces haploid gametes from diploid cells within the reproductive system.




To make gametes.

When does chromosome duplication occur in meiosis?

During interphase before meiosis.

Describe the process of mitosis.

A parent cell undergoes one set of chromosome duplication and divides into two daughter cells (2n)

Describe the process of meiosis.

A parent cell undergoes one set of chromosome duplication and divides into four haploid daughter cells. n.

What are sister chromatids? Describe the difference between sister chromatids that are joined and seperated.

One of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome.
When joined= they equal one chromosome and are eventually seperated to become individuals.

What does sexual reproduction involve?

The creation of genetically distinct offspring by the fusion of two haploid sex cells (gametes, sperm and egg) forming a diploid zygote.
(Fertilisation and Meiosis)

Define alleles.

An alternative form of a gene.
I.e for the gene of hair colour. Blond allele or brown allele.

Define the term dominant.

In a heterozygote, the allele that determines the phenotype with respect to a particular gene. Will always be expressed.

Define the term recessive.

In a heterozygote, the allele that has no noticeable effect on the phenotype.

Define P/ P generation

The parent individuals from which offspring are derived from in studies of inheritance. (parental)

Define F1 generation.

The offspring of two parental (P generation) individuals. First filial.

Define F2 Generation.

The offspring of the F1 generation individuals. Second Filial.

Define hybrid.

The offspring of parents that differ in one or more inherited traits, e.g an individual that is heterozygous for one or more pair of genes.

Define true breeders.

An organism that always passes down a certain phenotypic trait to its offspring.

Define homozygous.

Having two identical alleles for a given gene.

Define heterozygous.

Having two different alleles for a given gene.

Define monohybrid cross.

A mating of individuals differing at one genetic locus. (Locus - the site where a gene is found on a chromosome.)

Define punnet square.

A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the result of random fertilization.

Draw the cell cycle and label.

refer to book