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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the vertebral column contain?
Contains vertebrae
How is vertebrae better than a notochord?
It is more flexible than the notochord.
What kind of endoskeleton do vertebrates have?
Jointed endoskeleton made of bone or cartilage.
What does a jointed endoskeleton allow for?
Flexibility of movement.
What kind of circulatory system do vertebrates have?
A closed circulatory system.
What do vertebrate brains have?
a cranium
What do vertebrates have for respiration?
gills or lungs
How many kidneys do vertebrates have?
2 kidneys
What is most likely the ancestor of vertebrates?
some extinct form of amphioxus
What does the true liver do?
Produces digestive enzymes; cleans and detoxifies blood
What are the 2 extinct classes of Subphylum Vertebrate?
Class Ostracodermi and Class Placodermi
Describe Class Ostracodermi.
Fish-like organisms with no paired fins, jaws or scales.
Which extinct class had paired fins, jaws, and scales?
Class Placodermi
What kind of water did Class Ostracodermi inhabit?
fresh water, but they arose in the ocean
What does Class Ostracodermi have in lieu of paired fins, jaws, and scales?
bony plates
What kind of feeders are the organisms from Class Ostracodermi?
bottom feeders, they suck up organic debris from the bottom of water
What kind of feeders are the organisms from Class Placodermi?
they were predators
What organisms are in Class Cyclostomata?
lamprey "eel" and the hagfish
What do the organisms from the Class Cyclostomata have in common with the Ostracoderms?
-no jaws, sucker mouth
- unpaired fins
- no scales, naked skins
How do Cyclostomatas breathe?
They have paired gills in pouches (5-16 pairs)
What kind of back support do Cyclostomatas have?
They have a notochord and a vertebral column with small vertebrae.
What kind of skeleton do Cyclostomatas have?
a cartilage skeleton
What is unique about Cyclostomatas' eyes?
They have a pineal eye, which is a third eye. It does not see images, but is light sensitive.
What kind of heart do Cyclostomatas have?
A two chambered heart
What do Cyclostomatas use the lateral line system for?
to detect water vibrations
Our ear is said to have developed from what?
the lateral line system of the Cyclostomatas
What organisms does the Class Chondrichthyes contain?
sharks and rays
What kind of feeders are Chondrichthyes?
jawed predators
How do Chondrichthyes breathe?
through paired gills in slits (5-7 pairs)
What kind of skelton do Chondrichthyes have?
cartilage skeleton
What kind of scales do Chondrichthyes have?
placoid scales
What do Chondrichthyes use to detect water vibrations?
the lateral line system
What do Chondricthyes have to increase food absorption?
They have a spiral valve, which means that the inside of their intestines is spiral to increase surface area to increase food absorption.
What kind of heart do Chondricthyes have?
a two chambered heart
What kind fertilization do Chondricthyes have?
internal fertilization
What do Chondricthyes lack that would help them swim better?
They lack a swim bladder
What is a swim bladder?
bladder with gas in it that allows animal to change depths in water
What does the Class Osteichthyes contain?
the bony fish
What is the largest vertebrate class?
Class Osteichthyes
What kind of skeleton do Osteichthyes have?
a bony skeleton
How do Osteichthyes breathe?
with paired gills in gill chambers with an operculum
What do Osteichthyes have that allow them to swim better?
swim bladder
What evolved from lungs?
swim bladder
What kind of heart do Osteichthyes have?
a two chambered heart
What do Osteichthyes have to sense water vibrations?
lateral line system
What kind of fertilization do Osteichthyes have?
external fertilization
What is the transition class from fresh water to land?
Class Amphibia
What subclass are all living amphibians in?
Subclass Lissamphibia
What are the 3 living Orders of Class Amphibia?
-frogs and toads
- newts and salamanders
- caecilians
Where do amphibians reproduce?
in water or wet areas
How do amphibians breathe?
In larval stage they have gills, as adults they have lungs
What kind of skin do amphibians have?
smooth, moist skin to aid in respiration
What kind of heart do amphibians have?
a three chambered heart
Where is the amphibian tongue attached?
attached in front so that they can catch insects
Describe the amphibian ear.
they have an ear ossicle, which means they have a bone, but no canal
How do amphibians shed their skin?
they molt
Do amphibians have powers of regeneration?
yes, just tail and limbs (digits)
What are the 3 problems with amphibians?
1. cannot conserve body water because of their thin skin
2. cannot reproduce on land
3. can't thermoregulate
What are the 3 living orders of Class Reptilia?
- turtles and tortoises
- snakes and lizards
- crocodiles and alligators
What kind of skin do reptiles have?
thick, dry skin
Where do reptiles reproduce?
on land
What kind of egg do reptiles have?
egg with a shell, amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid
How do reptiles thermoregulate?
by sunning and shading themselves
What does the allantois of the egg do?
collects waste
What does the chorion of the egg do?
aids in respiration
How do reptiles breathe?
with lungs
What kind of heart do reptiles have?
a four chambered heart with a septum
What kind of penis do reptiles have?
a specialized penis with 2 prongs
Do reptiles molt?
snakes and lizards molt periodically
What is a disadvantage of being cold-blooded?
can't live in environments below 45 deg. F
What is an advantage of being cold-blooded?
require a lot less food to maintain body temperature
What does the Class Aves contain?
What kind of body do birds have?
fusiform bodies - thick in center, thin head and tail (for flight)
What 6 purposes do feathers have?
flight, protection, heat retention, buoyancy, camouflage, and advertisement
What purpose do wings and tails have in birds?
for balance and brake
What kind of heart do birds have?
a four chambered heart, which allows for complete separation of oxygen rich and oxygn poor blood
Birds have a high center of _____.
What kind of bone structure do birds have?
many fused bones - largest bones are hollow
In birds, what are attached to the lungs?
pneumatic cavities
What is attached to the sternum in birds?
The keel in a bird is part of the ____.
What is the largest order of Class Aves?
O. Passeriformes
What is the keel for in birds?
attachment of pectoralis major muscles for flapping wings
What do birds have to sing?
larynx (top of trachea) and syrnix (bottom of trachea)
What kind of stomach do birds have?
normal stomach with crop, gizzard and proventriculus
What did birds evolve from?
archaeopteryx (had teeth, claws, and tail with vertebrae)
What are the 3 subclasses of Class Mammalia?
- Monotremata
- Metatheria
- Eutheria
What are the 3 species of Subclass Monotremata and what are the characteristics?
Echidna, 2 species of platypuses
egg layers, no mammae
What animals are in Subclass Metatheria?
koala and opposum
What is the main characteristic of Subclass Metatheria?
marsupials with a marsupium
What animals are in Subclass Eutheria?
What is the main characteristic of Subclass Eutheria?
uterus and placenta
What are sebaceous glands?
glands that secrete oils to keep hair lubricated
What is scent used for in mammals?
to attract a mate or mark territory
How many appendages do mammals have?
Describe mammalian teeth.
they have a deciduous and a permanent set of teeth
Mammals are mainly ______ meaning they give birth to live young.
What is the most common order of mammals?
What is the 2nd most common order of mammals?
In addition to an abdomen with a diaphragm, mammals also have a _____.