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90 Cards in this Set

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phase of the heartbeat in which the heart contracts and pumps blood into the muscles


phase of the heartbeat when the heart relaxes and fills with blood again, following the systole

coronary circuit

circuit of blood vessels in the heart muscle


heart muscles

hepatic-portal circuit

circuit going to the digestive system and the liver

what controls the heartbeat?

the sinoatrial node, also called the pacemaker

what is the sinoatrial node?

specialized group of muscle cells in the wall of the RIGHT ATRIUM that send an electric impulse to the atrium, causing it to contract and carry this impulse to the atrioventricular node, which causes the ventricles to contract

what is the largest artery in the body and how large is it?

the aorta, carrying oxygenated blood, and is around the width of a thumb

what are the two largest veins in the body?

the superior and inferior vena cava

name the four functions of blood

- to carry oxygen, hormones, and nutrients to the cells

- to pick up wastes and toxins from the cells

- to fight infection

- to regulate temperature, pH, and water levels

what are the four components of blood?

plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets

describe plasma

- 90% water

- carries blood cells, hormones, etc.

- helps regulate body temperature

- straw colored

name the three functions of the lymphatic system

- to collect fluids leaked out of the capillaries to return them to the blood supply

- plays important role in fighting infections

- returns fluids through network of lymph nodes and vessels

name the three types of cartilage

fibrous, hyaline, and elastic

what are some common functions of cartilage?

to absorb shock, maintain rigidity, create shape, and reduce friction between bones

what are the four types of muscles?

involuntary, voluntary, cardiac, both

describe voluntary muscles

- also called striated muscle

- examples: biceps, triceps

- these are the ones you control

describe involuntary muscles

- also called smooth muscle

- these are the ones you don't control (like Gastrointestinal Muscles)

describe muscles that are "both"

they function both as voluntary and involuntary muscles, ex: diaphragm

describe cardiac muscle

- while technically involuntary, they are much different that the other kinds of involuntary muscles

- heart muscles

define tendons

connective tissue that connects muscles with bones

define joints

area where two bones articulate (meet up)

define articular cartilage

hyaline cartilage lining the bones at joints, avascular and innervated

define ligaments

connective tissue that connects bones to bones

what is sliding filament theory

the theory that sliding actin filament past constant myosin filament is what causes muscle tension/contraction. The shortening of the actin filament caused a shortening of the sarcomere, and therefore the muscle, which is made up of stacked sarcomeres.


subunits of muscle, stacked upon each other to form the striated pattern seen in muscle under a microcope. made up of parallel units of myosin and actin filaments

actin filament

the filament that does the actual movement, contracting and detracting to form muscle contractions

thinner filament compared to myosin

myosin filament

filament that is thicker than actin, and stationary in length within the sarcomere

peptide hormones

- FAST ACTING hormones

- activate already present hormones

- made up of peptides, proteins, glycoproteins, and modified amino acids

- do not enter the cell bc not made up of lipids

steroid hormones

- made up of cholesterol ( lipids )

- therefore they can enter target cells, passing through the lipid bilayer

- synthesize new proteins at site, thereby being SLOW ACTING hormones


- located in the forebrain

- function: acts as a bridge between the nervous and the endocrine systems, stimulating the pituitary gland

- secretes ADH (antidiuretic hormone) and oxytocin

function of ADH

regulates fluid volume in the body

function of oxytocin

stimulates uterus contractions during pregnancy

what hormones does the pituitary gland secrete

FSH, LH, and growth hormone

another name for adrenaline?


what two hormones do the ovaries produce?

progesterone and estrogen

define negative feedback

in which a certain event triggers an action meant to end this event, to regulate it

define positive feedback

in which the event triggers actions to further stimulate more events, with no regulation

name the progression of the gastrointestinal tract through which food travels through

mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, rectum

name the three organs/glands also aiding in digestion

pancreas, liver, gall bladder

how does the mouth help in digestion?

- mechanically digests food with teeth/chewing to increase surface area for enzyme action

-amylases, to breakdown carbohydrates

- saliva, contains enzymes and moistens food to make it easier to swallow

- tongue aids in swallowing and tasting


- produces mucus which lubricates food to make it slide down easier

- 10 inches long


- stores food

- mechanically churns and mashes food

- secretes gastric juice and hydrochloric acid

- gastric juice contains pepsin, which digests proteins

- hydrochloric acid destroys bacteria and provides proper pH for enzyme action

- turns food into chyme

- contains lipase

small intestines

- most chemical digestion/absorption takes place here

- villi increase surface area for absorption

- sugars, amino acids, and lipids are absorbed

- contains the enzymes maltase, lactase, and sucrase

through what structures do sugars and amino acids enter into the body?

blood capillaries

through what structures do lipids enter into the body?

lacteals, lymphatic capillaries

what two substances are secreted by the pancreas for digestion in the small intestines?

- sodium bicarbonate

- pancreatic juice

what is the function of sodium bicarbonate?

neutralizes hydrochloric acid in the chyme coming from the stomach

what four enzymes are in pancreatic juice and what are their functions?

- nucleases: split DNA and RNA into nucleotides

- lipase: digests lipids into fatty acids

- amylase: digests starch

- trypsin: digests protein


- involved in fat, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism

- produces bile, which emulsifies fat, breaking it into small particles with greater surface area for enzyme action

- filters toxins in the blood stream through the hepatic-portal circuit, which connects small intestines to the liver before going to the heart


digests maltose into glucose


digests lactose into glucose and galactose


digests sucrose into glucose and fructose

large intestines

- receives indigestible foods from the small intestines

- absorbs water and some vitamins

what nutrients are absorbed in the stomach

- 20% of alcohol

what nutrients are absorbed in the small intestines?

- glucose, amino acids, fats, vitamins, water, alcohol

what nutrients are absorbed in the large intestines?

- water

- potassium

- sodium

what is a calorie

the amount of energy needed to heat one kg of water one degree celsius


the thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arteries, narrowing them and creating difficulty in transporting blood

lymph nodes

organs of the lymphatic system, filters for cancer cells and foreign particles/toxins. Major sites for B and T cells, with therefore an important role in the immune system


like a large lymph node, it filters blood

what four structures are in the forebrain?

cerebrum, pituitary, hypothalmus, and pineal gland

what does the pineal gland secrete?

melatonin, for da sleepin

what does the thymus gland secrete?

thymic hormone, used to mature white blood cells

midbrain is the


hindbrain contain the

brain stem (pons and medulla oblongata)

function of the cerebrum

memory, learning, speech, emotions, voluntary activities

function of the cerebellum

coordinates muscles, center of balance

function of the midbrain or brainstem

- auditory and visual interpretation

function of the pons

controls breathing

function of the medulla oblongata

controls circulation, swallowing, and digestion

what are the three types of neuron?

sensory, interneuron, motor

where is oxygen carried in blood?

hemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells

where is carbon dioxide stored in the blood stream?

bicarbonate ions

name the four functions of the female reproductive system

1. produce eggs and release on a 28 day cycle

2. provide a site for fertilization

3. provide structure for embryonic development

4. provide female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)

name the eight structures in the female reproductive system

ovaries, ovaducts, uterus, cervix, vagina, labia majora, labia minora, clitorus

name the four phases of the menstrual cycle and their duration

1. follicle stage (10-14 days long)

2. Ovulation (usually on the 14th day)

3. Luteal stage (10-14 days)

4. Menstruation (3-5 days)

what occurs during the follicle stage

- pituitary gland secretes follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

- this stimulates the follicle to develop and mature

- follicle secretes ESTROGEN

what occurs during ovulation?

- high levels of estrogen cause pituitary gland to begin production of luteinizing hormone (LH)

- high levels of LH cause follicle to burst, releasing the egg

what occurs during the luteal stage?

- the ruptured follicle becomes a yellow body called the corpus luteum

- the corpus luteum begins too produce progesterone, further building the uterus wall

- progesterone inhibits FSH

what occurs during mestruation?

- LH levels decrease and cause the corpus luteum to break down

- progesterone levels drop and cause the uterine wall to break down

- the extra layers of the uterine wall, the unfertilized egg, and small amounts of blood pass out of the body through the vagina

what is the estrous cycle?

the reproductive cycle common among females of other mammalian species

name the three functions of the male reproductive system

1. production of sperm

2. deposit sperm inside the female reproductive tract

3. produce male sex hormones

name the five individual structures that make up the male reproductive system

testes, epididymis, vas deferens, penis, urethra

what is the scrotum?

sac that contains the testes and epididymis, maintaining temperature 1-2 degrees C cooler than the rest of the body for sperm production

seminiferous tubules

small, coiled tubules that make up the testes, producing ~300 million immature sperm a day

function of the epididymis

stores sperm cells for around 18-20 days, in which they become motive and gain the ability to fertilize

name the three accessory glands to the male reproductive system

seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands (cowper's glands)

function of the seminal vesicles

- they produce 60% of total fluid volume of semen

- alkaline to neutralize acids in vagina

- fructose sugar for food

- coagulating enzyme

function of prostate

- produces anticoagulant enzymes

- citrate (a sperm nutrient)

- alkaline fluid for neutralization of acids in female system