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166 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Descriptive Science

Observing, Recording, describing, characterizing, limited and classifying. Needed before inquiry science

Inquiry Science

The way scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence derived from work. Questions are asked

Steps in the scientific method






Hierarchy of life

Atomic level

Molecular level

Organelle level Cellular level

Tissue level

Organ level

Organ system Level

Organism level






6 properties of life



energy utilization


respond to environment


Properties of a virus

Lack the ability to reproduce without the aid of host cell

Don't use typical cellular division to replicate

Robert Hook

1665 1st to coin term cell, looked at a work at 30X magnification

Aton van Leeuqenhoek

Observed single-celled organisms

Schleiden and Schwann

1839 1st to conclude all living things are composed of cells and arise from cells (Cell theory). Cells take up space and have mass.

Inductive reasoning

small rules to draw larger, general conclusions

Deductive reasoning

Taking large ideas or general rules to draw specific conclusions. Applying hypothesis


statement is possible, multiple hypotheses are possible.

Inherent biological availability

degree which food nutrients are available for absorption and utilization.

Elements essential for life

Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen (96%). Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Chlorine, Magnesium

Characteristics of atoms

smallest unit of life

equivalent of one proton, neutron and electron

Smallest particle that can't be broken down further

Something that has different properties than its constituent

Components of atoms

atom: smallest unit of matter retaining properties of an element

protons: positively charged nuclear particle

neutrons: electrically neutral nuclear particle

electron: negatively charged particle surrounding nucleus

mass number: total number of protons + neutrons


Same element with different numbers of neutrons

Most natural elements are mixtures of isotopes

Element behaves the same in chemical reactions (No matter the number of neutrons.

Radioactive isotopes

unstable, decays to form a new atom.

Properties of Electrons

Basis of chemical reactivity

Arranged in orbitals no more than 2 electrons per orbital

Electrons try to reside in lowest energy shell possible

Absorption of energy will allow electrons to move into higher orbitals


Outermost shell of electrons

Atoms strive for full valence

Valence shell's determine

1st shell contains one orbital

2nd and 3rd contains 4 orbitals

What do valence shell's determine?

Determines the reactivity of an element

Thing that all elements strive for

Full valence shell

Covalent and Ionic bonds

Strongest chemical bonds

Valence are shared (Covalent)

Valence are stripped (Ionic)

Weak bonds

Atoms are attracted based on charge difference, brief interactions

Van der Waals interactions:

Hydrogen bonding:

Covalent bond properties

electrons shared to stabilized valence for both atoms

Allow formations of molecules

Usually polar b/c one partner has strong attraction for electrons that other partners (Water)


Ionic bond properties

Electrons stripped from one atom for use by strong electronegativity in one atom

Forms two ions

Strength of bond depends on environment. Water weakens.

EFFECTS 3-D structure of larger molecules!


negatively charged particle


positively charged particle

ionic compounds are called


Hydrogen bonding

occurs when hydrogen of one molecule is attracted to another electron in another molecule

occurs only if H has partial charge

attractions by instantaneously induced dipoles.

EFFECTS 3-D structure of larger molecules!

Van der Waals interactions

Occurs between non-polar covalent bonds

One induced dipole and one permanent dipole

EFFECTS 3-D structure of larger molecules!

Water's propoerties

Elixir of life.

Several properties critical for life:


High specific heat, high heat of vaporization, density properties, universal solvent, ability to dissociate


Ability of molecules to stick together. Water is a prime example and is a result of hydrogen bonding. 1 molecule of hydrogen can bond with four others.

Specific heat

amount of heat needed to change temperature of 1g of material by 1 degree celcius

Water: high specific heat, temperature changes very slowly and allows water to hold heat

Heat of vaporization

heat needed for 1g of liquid to be converted to gas.

High heat of vaporization for water because of hydrogen bonding

Density of water

Water is most dense at 4 degrees Celsius but freezes at 0 degrees Celsius

This is a result of hydrogen bonding

This causes ice to float in water.


When a substance clings to a surface other than itself.

This causes water to cling to the container

The Universal Solvent

stabilizes ions in solutions

because of polar molecules


water-loving and soluble in water

many molecules have hydrophobic/philic region


water fearing. Generally insoluble in water

many molecules have hydrophobic/philic region

Disassociation of water

Water occasionally disassociates and one hydrogen pairs with a water molecule to create a positively charged hydronium ion. Hydronium is extremely reactive

At 25 degrees Celsius concentration of 10-7M hydronium and water

Effects of acids and bases on water

acids increase [H+]

bases decrease [H+]

strong acids and bases completely disassociate

weak acids and bases dissociate reversibly

pH scale

potential hydrogen scale. Change of one pH unit results in 10X [H+] difference


substances that minimize changes in H+/OH- concentrations

Accepts and donate H+ to the solution


Chemical reactions of water

free protons exists in water that are attracted to oxygen to form hydronium

H2O is the base because it accepts a proton

H3O is the conjugate acid

Key characteristics of Carbon

organic (carbon-containing) molecules comprise 5-30% of the cell

four valence electrons

tetrahedral shape

compatible with most elements

Near top right of the periodic table but still mostly covalent bonds form





Ethene (ethylene)

Double bond results in everything in the same plane

Carbon combinations

Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbons

Carbon-hydrogen bonds: hydrocarbons are high energy

Result: variability in molecular skeleton, many different combinations

Result of diverse structure

Diverse functions


Same molecular formula; different structure and properties

structural isomers

Order of atoms in the molecule is different. Bonds of molecules are in different locations

geometric isomers and examples

spatial arrangement is different. cis/trans isomers. Two of the same molecules on the same side of double bond=cis two of the same molecules of different side of the double bond: trans


Create mirror images of each other

Simple Alkanes naming


Meth: CH4

Eth: C2H6

Prop: C3H8

But: C4H10








OH molecule

polar hydrogen bonds with water to help dissolve molecules. Enable linkage via condensation


C double bonded to O

C double bonded to O

carboxyl group

hydroxyl+ carbonyl. Acidic, ionizes to form -coo and h+. Enters into condensation by giving up OH.

hydroxyl+ carbonyl. Acidic, ionizes to form -coo and h+. Enters into condensation by giving up OH.

amino group

acts as a weak base N. Nitrogen single bonded to 2 hydrogen and one R group
Accept H+ in living organisms. Enters into condensation reactions by giving up H+

acts as a weak base N. Nitrogen single bonded to 2 hydrogen and one R group

Accept H+ in living organisms. Enters into condensation reactions by giving up H+

phosphate group

Anion, used in energy transfer. Ex: Adenosine Triphosphate. 

Enters into condensation by giving up OH. When bonded to another phosphate hydrolysis releases energy.

Anion, used in energy transfer. Ex: Adenosine Triphosphate.

Enters into condensation by giving up OH. When bonded to another phosphate hydrolysis releases energy.


contains sulfur. Can give up H to form disulfide bridge (S-S)

contains sulfur. Can give up H to form disulfide bridge (S-S)

Important in protein folding


C=O very reactive. Important in building molecules and in energy releasing rxns.

C=O very reactive. Important in building molecules and in energy releasing rxns.


O double bonded to C. C is bonded to two R groups.

Important in carbohydrates in energy reactions

Major macromolecules




nucleic acid

(All polymers but lipids)


Made up of similar/identical building blocks

monomer--> polymer : condensation/dehydration synthesis


building blocks of polymers

polymer-->monomer: hydrolysis

Making and breaking polymers

form/break covalent bonds

remove/add water

mechanisms is similar, bond type has different names for different macromolecules


Fuel for cell

monomer: monosaccharides

polymers: polysaccharides

contains carbonyl and many hydroxyls

bond of carbohydrate monomers

glycosidic linkage


carbon backbone (3-7 carbons long)
can contain asymmetric carbon
often forms rings in solution

monosaccharide aldose

carbonyl group is in the end of chain

Glyceraldehyde triose sugar

Ribose: pentose sugar

Glucose: hexose sugar

Galactose: hexose sugar

monosaccharide ketose

carbonyl in the middle of chain

Dihydroxyacetone: 3 carbon

Ribulose: 5 carbon

Fructose: 6 carbon

Monosaccharide ring formation
Carbon counting

Start counting where the oxygen in the ring is. Count clockwise. 6 carbon is the carbon sticking off of the ring. If there is a carbon bonded immediately to the carbon connecting to the oxygen, count that stem as 1

Result of covalent bond between carbonyl and hydroxyl

Disaccharide formation

Glycosidic bond.

Glucose + Fructose



6 carbons C6H12O6


6 carbon C6H12O6

Relationship of Glucose and Galactose




Made of monosaccharides (usually glucose)

Starch and Glycogen

composed of alpha glucose monomers


beta glucose monomers

alpha glycosidic linkages

helical polymer

beta glycosidic linkages

linear polymer


Parellel cellulose molecules form hydrogen bonds, results in thin fibers. Layers of fibers give plant cell wall great strength


branched, limits the number of hydrogen bonds that can form in starch molecules. Less compact than cellulose
Carbohydrate made from glucose monomers


highly branched. Makes its solid deposits more compact than starch.

Lugol's solution (iodine)

detects polysaccharides that are 7 monosaccharides long

Benedict's Reagent (Copper Sulfate)

detects simple sugars, but not complex; requires basic environment. Copper accepts electrons from sugar to form colored precipitate

Basic formula in carbohydrates

(CH2O)n. Usually between 3-7

alpha in carbohydrates

hydroxyl group near the O in the carbon chain pointing away from the O

beta glucose

hydroxyl group near the O in the carbon chain points towards the oxygen

properties of lipids

not composed of monomers

long hydrocarbon chains

mostly hydrophobic, but some have polar bonds

stores energy, provide barriers, act in signaling

includes: fats, phospholipids, steroids


glycerol (hydroxyl containing) and 3 fatty acid chains with carbonyl ends

fatty acid chain with variable length (16-18) and can have double bonds

Can store 2x more energy than polysaccharides

Saturated fat

no double bonds. Straight chain. Easy to pack molecules in, usually solid at room temperature

ie stearic acid

unsaturated fats

at least one double bond, bends the tail. Using liquid at room temperature

ie oleic acid


composed of glycerol, 2 fatty acids and phosphate tail. Phosphate head highly polar. Forms micelles or lipid bilayers


lipid molecules arranged spherically, hydrophilic head on the outside, facing aqueous solution. Hydrophobic tails are on the inside blocked off from the water.


Hydrophilic tails on the middle

hydrophilic head on the outside facing aqueous solution


hydrocarbon rings form 4 fused rings

attach functional group determines function

Steroids are considered lipids

Sudan IV

lipid soluble dye, dissolves in non-polar solvents


composed of amino acid monomers

function: support, storage, transport, signaling, movement, defense, regulate metabolism.


chain of amino acids


1 or more polypeptides in a specific conformation

Essential amino acids

20 amino acids necessary for life

amino acids

asymmetric C with carboxyl and amino groups and R

20 amino acids

Glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionline, phenylalanine, tryptophan, proline, serine, threonine, cysteine, tyrosine, asparagine, glutamine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, arginine, histidine


Central carbon double bonded to an oxygen, central carbon single bonded to a side group , carbon single bonded to an oxygen and another side group


oxygen bonded to two different sub groups


1 or more polypeptides in a specific conformation


chain of amino acids

composed of amino acid monomers

Bond type for amino acids

Covalent. Carboxyl (C) and amino acid (N) ends of amino acids

Range: few-thousands

Amino arrangement dictated by

by DNA sequence in genes

1st (primary structure) protein

sequence on amino acids = 20^n possibilities

held together by covalent bonds of amino acids

2ndary structure of protein

interactions between carboxyl and amino groups on backbone of nearby amino acids

3rd (tertiary) structure of protein

interactions between side groups on more distant amino acids

4th Quaternary structure

more than one polypeptide interacts to form a protein

alpha structure of protein

helical structure (coiled structure)

2ndary structure

beta structure of protein

beta pleated sheets are parallel sheets of amino acids

can be antiparellel as well

2ndary structure

Tertiary structure

side chain interactions and solvent

side chains can be distant

hydrophobic interactions: non-polar amino acids repelled by water

Van der Waals forces: stabilize hydrophobic interactions

hydrogen bonding: between polar side chains

ionic/electrostatic bonding: between charged side chains

disulfide bridge: covalent bond between cysteine residues (contains sulfhydryl group)


only happens with disulfide groups

only happens with disulfide groups

Quaternary structure

interactions between polypeptides in a protein

allows for even more diversity in protein function

Ester linkages

connects lipids together

Causes of denaturation of protein

Change in temperature, change in pH, polarity of solvent, [salts], and specific chemicals


proteins that assists with folding of proteins

Biuret test

detects polypeptide change

acid treatments will breka hydrogen bonds, changing solubility

Nucleic acids

composed of nucleotide monomers

functions to store and transmit genetic information

2 types: deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid

bonds connecting nucleic acids

phosphodiester linkage

monomers of nucleic acids

nitrogenous base, pentose, and phosphate group

backbone of nucleic acid


bonding sites of phosphodiester bonds

5' PO4

3' OH

Difference of DNA and RNA

pentose sugar for DNA: deoxyribose

pentose sugar for RNA: Ribose

structure of nucleic acid

nitrogenous base, pentose and phosphate group (phosphodieseter bond)


adenine and guanine

aromatic hydrocarbon

cyclic flat molecule that is unusually stable compared to other types of atom arrangements of that same molecule. Contains benzene


cyclic hydrocarbon with the formula c6h6


Cytosine thymine and Uracil

RNA uses what nitrogenous bases?

Adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil

RNA uses what nitrogenous bases?

adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil

DNA structure

double helix with antiparellel strands

Adenine-thymine (Uracil in RNA) (2 bonds)

cytosine-guanine (3 bonds)

Pairing occurs due to hydrogen bonds

Benefits of complementary strands

allows for efficient copying


usually exists as single-stranded molecule (not necessarily linear)

follows base pairing like DNA (Uracil replaces Thymine)

Varieties of RNA

mRNA (messenger)

tRNA (transfer)

rRNA (ribosomal)

Central dogma

DNA codes for RNA which codes for proteins

Why is cell size limited

surface area to volume ratio

transportation distance from DNA to RNA

limitation of nutrients in environment

Components of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

plasma membrane, cytosol, chromosomes and ribosomes

Features unique to Prokaryotes

Domains bacteria and archae

lack membrane bound organelles or nuclear chromosomes

usually small with a cell wall


Kingdoms protista plantae, fungi and animalia with membrane bound organelles

Eukaryote features

membrane bound organelles that allow for compartmentalization

Plant vs animal two major types

Animal cells lack

chloroplasts, central vacuole, cell wall, plasmodesmata

Plant cells lack

lysosomes, centrioles and flagella

Endomembrane system

composed of cytosol, cisterna, lumen, plasma membrane and nucleus


stores and transcribes DNA lined by double membrane contains lamina and matrix for support, nuclear pores allow passage of material, nucleolus involved in synthesis of ribosome, chromatin is DNA + protein complex (histones)

Double membrane lining the nucleus

nuclear envelope


provides support for the nucleus also regular important cellular events

dense fibrillar network inside nucleus of most cells

consists of intermediate filaments and membrane associated proteins

nuclear matrix

structure resulting from aggregation of proteins and RNA in nucleus

network of fibers found throughout the inside of a cell nucleus. Helps in organizing the genetic information within the cell

Nucleus consists of

Chromatin, nucleolus, pore, two membranes of nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear lamina, nuclear matrix inner membrane, outer membrane, and pore complex


DNA + protein complexes (histones)


protein complex associated with DNA


condensed and silent


more relaxed and active


condensed chromatin seen prior to cell division

Nuclear pore

protein lined channel that regulates transportation of molecules between nucleus and cytoplasm


combining non-soluble liquids together via shaking