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32 Cards in this Set

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precordium

the area on the anterior chest directly overlying the heart and great vessels

great vessels

major arteries or veins connected to the heart

mediastium

middle of thoracic cage

the heart extends from the

2nd to 5th intercostal space and from the right border of the sternum to the left midclavicular line

right side of the heart is

anterior inside of the body

left side is

mostly posterior

the right atrium lies

to the right and above the right ventricle and forms the right border

top of the heart is the

broader base

bottom of the heart is the

apex which points down and to the left (picture triangle)

during contraction

apex beats against chest wall, producing apical impulse

superior and inferior vena cava

return unoxygenated venous blood to the right side of the heart

pulmonary artery

leaves right ventricle bifurcates and carries venous blood to the lungs

pulmonary veins

return freshly oxygenated blood to the left side of the heart

aorta

carries blood out of the body; ascends from the left ventricle, arches back at the level of the sternal angle, and descends behind the heart.

pericardium

tough fibrous, double walled sac that surrounds and protects the heart ; has 2 layers filled with few millimeters of serous pericardial fluid; insures smooth friction free movement of heart muscle; adherent to great vessels, esophagus, sternum, and pleurae and is anchored to diaphragm

myocardium

muscular wall of the heart; does the pumping

endocardium

thin layer of endothelial tissue that lines the inner surface of the heart chambers and valves

the two pumps are separated by an impermeable wall

the septum

atrium

thin walled reservoir for holding blood

ventricle

thick walled muscular pumping chamber

Arioventicular

Valves that separate atria and the ventricles;

The tricuspid valve

Right av valve

Mitral valve

The left av valve; also known as bicuspid

Tricuspid and mitral valve have thin leaflets anchored by collagenous fibers called

Chordate tendinae

Diastole

The av valves open during hearts filling phase, or diastole to allow the ventricles to fill with blood.

Systole

During pumping phase, or systole, the av valves close to prevent regurgitation of blood back up into the atria.

Semilunar valves

Are set between the ventricles and the arteries. Each valve has three cusps that look like half moons. The open during pumping, or systole, to allow blood to be ejected from the heart.

Pulmonic valve

In the right side of the heart; SL valve;

Aortic valve

In the left side of the heart;

There are no valves between

The vena cava and the right atrium or between the pulmonary veins and the left atrium.

The ventricles relax and fill with blood. This takes up two thirds of the cardiac cycle.

In diastole

Blood is pumped from the ventricles and fills the pulmonary and systemic arteries. This is one third of the cardiac cycle.

Systole; heart contraction