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207 Cards in this Set

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Osteocytes
-Mature bone cell maintain bone Matrix

-dont divide
-Live in lacunae( found btwn layers (lamellae) of matrix
-Conn. by cytoplasmic extensions thru canaliculi in lamellae

***MAKE OWN SLIDE
To maintain protein and mineral content of matrix
 To help repair damaged bone
Osteoblasts + secrete 2 things
-immature -secrete osteogenesis
-surrounded by bone become osteocytes
-produces Osteoid
Osteoprogenitor cells
stem cells divide to produce osteoblasts
-assist in fracture repair
-located in endosteum
osteoclasts
break down bone matrix & release osteolysis
-from stem cells that produce
macrophages
-GIANT multi nucl cells
-Secrete acids & protein-digesting enzymes
Spongy Bone characteristics
-has red (bl ves) & yellow marrow (fat)
-Matrix make open network of trabeculae
Bone reModeling results
-renews bone matrix
-replace min reserve
-involves osteo:cytes, clasts & blasts
Osteoporosis
severe bone lost
-effect more woman over45
osteopenia
fragile limbs
-Epiphyses, vertebrae& jaws most affected:
Calcitrol characteristics
-hormone from kidneys
-  Help absorb calcium &phosphorus from dig tract
-needs vitD3 to synthesize
(cholecalciferol)
Calcium Characteristics
-stored in bones
-most abundant in body
vital to:: membranes, neurons, mus cell, heart cell
Calcitonin & PTH maintain & control
homeostasis

control storage, absorption, and excretion in bones, kidn, digest tract
Calcitonin
Secret by C cells (parafollicular cells) in thyroid
Decreas calci ion levels by:::
-stop osteoclast activity
-Increa calcium excretion at kidneys
PTH-parathyroid hormone
produced by PT in neck
-increase Cali ions by:
stimulating osteoclasts
decrease calci descret in kidneys
Increas intestinal absorp of calcium
3 Joint Classification
-Syn arthosis
-Amphi arthrosis
-Di arthrosis
what is Syn arthrosis?
no movement
may fuse over time
fiber/cart connections
strong
have 4 types
What is Amphi arthrosis?
Little movement
-fib/cart connections
What is Di arthrosis? aka ____ _____
Free moveable
aka synovial
-move in triaxial plane
(gets subdivided by movement)
What are the 4 types of SYN arthrosis?
1. Suture
2. Synostosis
3. Synchondrosis
4. Gomphosis
(((((SYN has 3 letter. 3 S's + 1 G)))))
Suture bones

characteristic + where found
-only found skull

interlock
-fib connected tissue
GOMphosis
characteristic + where found

(gom like gum)
paraDONTAL lig
hold teeth in socket

(dontal like dentist(orthoDONTist --want teeth in place
Synch ondrosis

characteristic + where found
bridge btwn 2 bones

Epiphyseal cart long bones
 Btwn vertebrosternal ribs & sternum
Syno stosis

characteristic + where found
fused cant move

Front skull suture
Epiphyseal lines of long bones
2 types of AMphiarthROSES

(flowers & chocolate)
1. synDESMOSIS
2. SYMPHhysis

DESMOSIS---daisy flowers
SYMPH=sympony choco bar
What is synDESmosis?
bones connected by LIGA
What is SyMPHysis?
bones sep by fib cart
Diarthrosis
are in articular capsules
lined w/ synovial membrane
what is Articular cartilages
pad prevent bone from touching
-artic surfaces within art capsule
Smooth surfaces are lubricated with synovial fluid to reduce _______
friction
Synovial Fluid

1.Characteristic
+ 3 functions (think by prevent friction important with bones)
is secreted by fibroblasts
(((slippery proteoglycans))))

function=lubrication, absorb shock, distrib nutrients
Cartilage
cushion joints

fib/cart pad called meniscus
Fat Pads
protect art cartilage
-covers joint capsule (superficial to it)
Ligaments
support/strengthen joints

(tendon also support joint)
Tendons
attach muscle around joint

support joint (so does ligament)
Bursae
Pockets of Synovial Fluid
-cushio where liga & tendons rub
What is a sprain?:
torn ligament & cart. fibers
Dislocation aka luxation

& what does it damage
articic surface is forced out of place

damages joint capsule, art cartil, & ligament
Subluxation
partial dislocation
What movement does ADDuction make?
move towards longitudinal axis of body
-frontal place

angular motion
what movement does Circumduction make?
circular motion without rotation

angular motion
What movement does Rotation make?
diaphysis spins in circle
-relative to longitudinal axis of body

direction of rotation from anatom position
Medial rotation

Lateral Rotation
Medial= inward rotation; towards axis

Lateral=outward rotation; away from axis
What movement is Supination & Pronation ?

what part of body does both movements?
supination=forearm in anat. position; palm up

pronation=palm down; radius over ulna; rotates forearm

*forearm does both movements
inversion, eversion, dorsiflexion, plantarflexion are in regard to?

& what how does each move?
feet

inversion=twist sole medial
eversion=twist sole lateral
dorsiflexion=flexion at ankle-lift toes
plantar=extension @ankle-point toe
Oppositonal
thumb moves toward fingers/palm

make grasping motion
What type of movement does
Protraction & Retraction make?
Protraction=push forward in horizontal plane-moves anterior

Retractional=pull back in horizon plane
Lateral Flexion
bend vertebral column side to side
Elevation

Depression
Elevation= move in superior direction
(up)

Depression=move in inferior direction (down)
6 types of synovial joints

***remember acronym***
P.E.B(s).S.G.H
PEBSGH=People Everywhere BS Simply to Gain Hierarchy

Pivot
Ellipsoid
Ball&Socket
Saddle
Glide
Hinge
What movement does it make & what Plane does it move in?

Pivot
rotation only

monaxial
What movement does it make & what Plane does it move in?

Ellipsoid
**think eclipse
Oval articular face within a depression

motion in 2 planes (biaxial)
What movement does it make & what Plane does it move in?

Ball-And-Socket
Round articular face within depression

Triaxial
What movement does it make & what Plane does it move in?

Saddle
straddled

2 directions (biaxial)
What movement does it make & what Plane does it move in?

Glide
flat/slight curve face

limited movement (nonaxial)
What movement does it make & what Plane does it move in?

Hinge
Angular motion

1 plane (monaxial)
Which Joints Are These?

Acromclav joint & clavsternal joints
intercarpal & intertarsal
sacroilliac
verto/costal
Gliding
Which Joints Are These?

first carpometacarpal joint

(trapezium&metacarpal joint of thumb)
saddle joint
Which Joints Are These?

Shoulder joint (humerous/scapula) & hip Joint
Ball-And-Socket
Which Joints Are These?

radiocarpal joint
metacarpophalangeal
metatarsalphalangeal
Ellipsoid
Which Joints Are These?

atlas/axis
proximal rradio-ulnar joint
pivot
Which Joints Are These?

elbow joint
ankle joint
knee joint
interphlangeal joint
hinge
which joints are monoaxial? & what is the diff?
Hinge & Pivot.

Diff is Pivot is rotational only
Henge is angular motion
which joint is non axial
Gliding joint
which joints are Biaxial
saddle & Ellipsoid
Which joints are triaxial?
Ball & socket
which joint has largest articulation?

which has the smallest?
largest=humero-ulnar

smallest= humeroradial
what articulates in Humero-Ulnar joint?
Trochlea of humerus and trochlear notch of ulna
What articulates in Humeroradial joint?
Capitulum of humerus and head of radius
Joint with greatest range & least stable
glenohumeral joint
What is articulating at the glenohumeral joint?
head of humerus and glenoid cavity
of scapula
what bones articulate at the elbow?
humerus, radius, and ulna
what bones make hip joint?
Head of femur fits into the socket of acetabulum
weight transfers from ____ to ___
femur to tibia
there are 3 articulations in knee. 2 are in the tibia. 1)__ condyle 2). __ condyle.

3) ___ surface of the tibia
1, medial
2, lateral
2.) patella
what happens where you "Lock" your knees?
you jam the lateral meniscus between tibia and femur
A Strain is a tear in the ___ not the ___.

A sprain is a partial/complete tear in the ___ & the ___
muscle not the joint


ligaments & capsule of joint
DIfference between Arthritis:::

Gouty, Osteo, Rheumatoid,
gouty=cystals from in synovial fluid (calci or uric acid)

osteo=wear & tear of joints

rheumatoid= inflam. involves immune sys
Epimysium 3 characteristics
1.) exterior cart. layer surrounds the whole muscle (organ)
2)seperates muscle from surrounding tissues
3)connected to deep fascia
Perimysium 2 characteristics
surrounds fascicles (bundles mus fiber)
contains blood vessel & nerve sup
Endomysium 3 characteristics
1. surroun, individual mus fib/cell
2. capillaries & nerve cells contacting muscle cells
3..myosatellite cells (stem cells) that repair damage
What is the sliding Filament Theory

what happens when to parts of sacromere during contracts?
Thin fil slide toward M line
alongside thick filaments

-width of A band stays same
- Z lines move closer together
-h band smaller
-titan gets BIGGER
Components of Sacromere

3 Lines, 3 bands +2 others
M Line --A Band
Z Line ---I Band
Z Line ---H Band
Titin
Zone of Overlap
What is the Neuromuscular Junction?
location of neural stim
ends at Synaptic Terminal

Place where AP travels
what are the 5 steps & location names involved with AP

(in the NMJ)
1.) An ACTION potential arrives at the synaptic terminal (NMJ)
2.) Acetylcholine (ACh) is released from the axon terminal into the synaptic cleft. (((vesicles in synaptic term fuse with nueron membrane & dump their contents in synap cleft)))
3.) AcH binds at the motor end plate ((binding of AcH to recept increases membrane perm to NA+. NA+ then rush in cell))
4.) AP is in sacrolemma (motor end plate) {{AP spreads across surface of sacrolemma while this occurs AChE breaks down ACh
5.) Return to initial state ((if another AP arrive at NMJ, the cycles begins at step 1 again
What role does ACh (acetylocholine) have?
AcH gets released into synaptic cleff -->binds to receptors on sacrolemma (motor end plate)--> membrane changes periamble to Na+ -->NA+ rushes into sacrolemma -> AcH gets blocked/broken down by enzyme (AcHE)
What role does AchE (acetylocholiesterase) have on muscles?
breaks down AcH once it crosses the muscle motor plate & recycles it back to the nerve, clearing the synaptic cleft so another contract can happen
What role does Sodium play on muscle contraction?
once AcH binds to recept site on muscle plate, membrane gets periable to Na+ & triggers NA+ to rush in & Potass- to rush out.

It allows AP to jump to muscle side by causing exchange--depolarization of ions
what is AP (action potential)?

what role does AP play in contraction?
electrical nerve signal

generated by increas in NA+ ions in sacrolemma --> travels along t-tubes -> leads to excitation/contraction coupling-->AP reaches Triad
how does AP to NMJ travel?
down length of axon & ending at Synaptic Terminal
AcH is released by what?
Synaptic Terminal
What is a synaptic cleft?
gap btwn synaptic terminal
& motor end plate
What role does Caclium play in NMJ? & what 2 things does it require?
after AP reaches Triad--> it release Ca+ & triggers contraction
**requires myosin heads to be in "cocked position" & LOADED with ATP
Neural stimulation of sarcolemma:
 Causes _____
Causes excitation–contraction coupling
Cisternae of SR releases ____ which triggers interaction of ____ & ____. which consume ___ & produce tension
Ca2+
triggers interaction of thick/thin filament.

consume ATP & produce tension
5 steps of contraction ((in resting sacromere)))
1. Expos active sites
2. Formation of cross-bridges
3. Pivoting of myosin heads
4. Detachment of cross-bridges
5. Reactivation of myosin
Difference btwn ACh & AChE on molecular level
AcH is transmitter
AchE is enzyme
what produces tension?
As sarcomeres shorten, muscle pulls together
what causes Muscle Cramps?
Lack of ATP needed to pump Ca2+ back into SR & makes muscle stay partially contracted
what causes Rigor Mortis?
Ion pumps stop -> results in a lack of ATP-->  Ca2+ builds up in the sarcoplasm

This prevents relaxation
 Thus a fixed muscular contraction after death
Skeletal muscle fibers ___ as thin filaments slide btwn thick filaments
shorten
____in the sarcoplasm triggers contraction
Ca+
__ releases Ca2+ when a motor neuron stimulates the ____
SR

muscle fiber
Contraction is a ___ process
active
Relaxation/return to resting length are ____ process
passive
What are Myosin Heads? & what do they do during contraction?
the puck part of thick filament

Interact with actin filaments --> form cross-bridges -->  Pivot --> producing motion
what motion does Myosin head do?
Pivot
Thick filaments contain::
Myosin (head/tail)
Titin
What is Titin?

(green coils)
strands of protein
reach tips of thick fil to Z-Line
Stabilize filaments
recoil after stretching
Twisted Myosin has Head & tail.

what is the function of them? +what head is made of?
head=reaches nearest thin fil::: Made of 2 globular protein subunits


tail=Binds to other myosin molecules
Hierarchy of Skel Muscle
Skeletal Mus --> mus Fascicle --> Muscle fiber/cell--> myoFIBRIL--> sacromere
Skel Mus is surrounded by _____ & contains _____
surrounded by Epimysium, contains bundles of mus fascicles
Mus Fascicle is surrounded by ____ & contains ____
surr by Perimysium

contains mus fibers
Mus Fiber is surrounded by ___ & contains ______
surr by Endomysium

contains Myofibrils
Myofibril is surrounded by ___ & contains ____
Sacroplasmic Reticulum (SR)

contains Sacromeres (z line to z line)
what is a sacromere? & what does it contain? (not including lines &bands)
z line to z line

contains thin/thick filaments
4 thin Filaments:
1. Nebulin
2. F-Actin ((Filamentous actin)
3. Tropmyosin
4. Troponin.
*********************************

(((know all 4 thin Filament functions)))
(((know all 4 thin Filament functions)))
memorize who string double pears moves ****LOOK AT PIC In NOTES
memorize who string double pears moves ****LOOK AT PIC In NOTES
Zone of overlap
where thin/thick fil overlap
H-Band
Area around M line

*only contains thick Fila
what are A-Bands & I-Bands?
A Bands= thick
I Bands=Thin
Alternating A& I Bands is called?
Striations
___ is in the center of the A-Bands
M line (also center of sacromere)
____ is in the center of I-Bands
Z-lines ((also at both ends of sacromere))
___ are the contractile units of muscle & form pattern of myofibril
Sacromere
Sacromeres are the structural unites of ____
Myobrils
What forms a triad?
2 terminal cisternae + 1 T-Tub
Calci is stored in ____ & released _____
Terminal Cisternae

released Zone of Overlap
what causes the troponin/ tropmyosin to change form?

(pearls twist)
Calci binds to Troponin
during contraction ___ gets bigger while ____ gets smaller
bigger= zone of overlap

smaller= muscle length
What is Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)?
membrane struct surr each myofibril

help transmit AP
____ Forms chambers (terminal cisternae) attached to T tubules
SR
___ transmits AP thru cell
T-Tubules (((Transverse tubuiles)
____ have same properties as sacrolemma & Allow entire muscle fiber to contract simultaneously
T-Tubes
 It is the change in transmembrane potential that
begins contractions
 It is the change in transmembrane potential that
begins contractions
all or nothing principle
as a whole a muscle fiber is contracted or relaxed
Aerobic Metabolism

how & where cells produce & store ATP
-Rrimary energy source RESTING mus
*Breaks down fatty acids
 *Produces 34 ATP/glucose
Anaerobic Glycolysis

How/where cells produce/store ATP
*primary energy source PEAK mus activity
*makes 2 ATP mol/glucose
 *Breaks down glucose from glycogen stored in skeletal
muscles
Clostridium Botulinum aka Boltisim ( botox)
rod shape bacteria; improper canning of food
2 Drugs affecting NMJ
Neostigmine & curare
what happens in a resting muscle?
what does it break down & for what?
fatty acids are broken down

The ATP it makes is used to build reservation Glycogen, ATP & CP
What happens during mod activity?
what does it break down & for what?
breaks down Glucose & ATP

the ATP it makes is used to power contraction
what happens during heavy
what does it break down & why?
ATP is made thru glycolysis with lactic acid as by-product

((((mitochondria only provide 1/3 of ATP consumed))))
what is Creatine phosphate (CP)?
storage mol for ATP in resting mus
what Energy recharges ADP to ATP?
CPK
Clostridium Botulinum produces neurotoxin botulin.. what does this toxin prevent?
release of ACh from motor nerve
fibers so skel mus cant contract
Neostigmine produces Parasympathomimetic

what does this prevent?
makes ACh accumulate by stopping AChE release
which disease has too few ACh?
MG

My asthenia gravis ((autoimmune disorder)
Muscular Hypertrophy increases the size of?
muscle fibers
what is MD
muscle cells die & get replaced by fat & CT.

muscles deteriorate
most common type of MD?
duch
 With prolonged inactivity ___ ____ may replace muscle fibers
fibrous tissue
NMJ is the location of?
neural stimulation
which muscle "trophy" is this:

Lack of muscle activity;;; Reduces muscle size, tone, and
power
Atrophy
Output compression
Compression after volume control. As the volume control increases, the compression threshold decreases and the maximum output stays the same.
hemoglobin
transport O2 & CO2 in blood
myogobin
muscle cell stores o2, make muscles red
Isotonic contraction?
length moves &cause motion
isometric contraction? has ____ but ____ stays same
has tension but length stays same
type of tension that has greatest magnitude response?

(type of shot that hurts the most)
tetanus
if mus tension is greater than load? ((((has special name)
concentric contraction
mus shortens
if mus tension is less than load?((has special name)
eccentric contraction
mus lengthens
which tension type gives firmness?

tony tone tone
tonus ((tony-tone-tone)
 Sustained contraction. 3 characteristics

**think of passing potan in race)
1. Asynchronous Summation
2. let motor unites rest
3. rotating basis
multiple motor unit Summation
group of muscles give smooth movement ;;; slow increase size or # stimulated
3 phases of Twitch
1. latent 2 contraction 3relax
what happens in each phase?

AP----grandmothers house we go
**Lantent;; AP moves thru sacromere & trigger Calci release

*Contraction=cali binds to troponin;;;;cross bridge form; tension peak

*Relaxation= tension fall-calci drop,, Active sites covered
Fascicle Arrangement

uni
Fibers on one side of tendon

Ex: extensor digitorum (top of forearm)
Fascicle Arrangement

bi
Fibers on both sides of tendon

 Ex: rectus femoris (top of quadriceps)
Fascicle Arrangement

multi
Tendon branches within muscle

 Ex: deltoid (shoulder)
Fascicle Arrangement

pennate
Form an angle with the tendon

more tension/myofibrils than parra
BUT DONT MOVE FURTHER
function of level
direct/strength of applied force

& dist/speed of AF
def of orgins
fixed point of attachment
def of insertion
moving point of attachment
longus
long
parallel muscles
Fascicles parallel to the long axis of muscle

ex/ biceps brachii
lever
each bone is mechanically a level
Longissimus
longEST
teres
long & round
Brevis
short
magnus
large
major
largER
Maximus
largEST
minor
small
minimus
smallEST
 Extrinsic/ Intrinsic Muscles
ex=Muscles outside an organ

IN=Muscles inside an organ
location
identifies body region
Rectus
straight
transverse
situated or lying across
oblique
angle (NOT PARRA orPERPEN)
first part of name indicated ______ & second part indicated _____
1st= origin

2nd=insertion
correct name of muscle include name of musc except

(dont need to memorize just famil)
Platysma
Diaphragm
Anatagnost
opp movement of particular agonist
agonist
produce partic movement
synergist
small mus assists big agonist
mus work in opposites. when 1 contracts the other ____
stretches
1st class lever

give function & example
what is happening btwn force & load
see-saw

CF is btwn AF & load
force & load are balanced
first class body movement
nod head
2nd class lever

ex given
wheel barrel
A small force moves a large weight

The load is centered between AF and F
2nd class body movement example
getting on tippy toes
3rd class lever (most common)

ex/given
 Center the AF between load and fulcrum

Greater force moves smaller resistance
____Maximizes speed and distance traveled
3rd lever
ex/ body movement 3rd lever
flexation of arm at elbow
____ is  Required to overcome load (L) or resistance
applied force (AF)
fulcrum (F)
fixed point
Circular Muscles aka
sphincters
____ open & close to guard entrances of body
circular muscles
Convergent Muscles
A broad area converges on attachment site;; mus fibers pull in diff directions