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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three Types of Muscle
Smooth, Cardiac, Skeletal
the ability to stretch so that it can be elongated-cannot elongate itself requires an external force such as another muscle group, or gravity
ability to return to normal length after the stretching force is removed
Parallel Elastic Component (PEC)
epimysium, permysium, endomysium
Series elastic component (SEC)
Contractile Components
Actin and Myosin
the ability to respond to a stimulus, ordinarily comes from the nervous system
the ability to apply tension or apply force
Smooth Muscle Appearance
lacks lines, single centrally located nucleus, spindle shape, small in size, fatigue resistant
Smooth Muscle Location
located on walls of hollow vicera, and the walls of blood vessels
Smooth Muscle Regulation
Autonomic or involuntary muscles
Cardiac Muscle Appearance
striated b/c of the arrangement of actin and myosin, contractile proteins are arranged into sarcomere, 1 or 2 nuclei per fiber, also branch out
Cardiac Muscle Location and regulation
found only in the heart

autonomic, self regulated with influence of the autonomic nervous system
Skeletal Muscle Functions
force production for locomotion and breathing, force production for postural support, heat production during cold stress(shivering)
Skeletal muscle Appearance
striated, many peripherally located nuclei 100's to 1000's, huge cells

long cylindrical muscle fibers, cells are not connected to each other, each fiber is a large cell, multinucleated, structurally independent cells
Skeletal Muscle location and regulation
located throughout the body and are voluntary muscles regulated by the somatic nervous system
Skeletal Muscle Chem composition
75% Water
20% Protein
5% Inorganic salts, etc.
surrounds the whole muscle, separates one muscle from another
surrounds and separates each fasciculus
bundle of muscle fibers usually 12 to 150 fibers
surrounds and separates individual muscle fibers
Nerve Supply Motor fibers
(Efferent) From the Central nervous system out to the periphery, responsible for activating skeletal muscle
Nerve Supply Sensory Fibers
(Afferent) periphery back to the central nervous system, many different information types to be sent, pain, fatigue, etc. etc..
Motor Unit
A group of skeletal muscle fibers and the somatic motor neuron that controls them
Alpha Motor Neuron
Connects to the muscle fiber in the middle of the fiber
1 motor neuron can innervate many muscle fibers
1 muscle fiber is innervated by just 1 motor neuron
Alpha Motor Neuron Cell Bodies
generally found in the spinal cord, anterior gray horn of the spinal cord
Synaptic Vesicles
Store acetylcoline (ACH)
Synaptic cleft
gap in between the muscle fiber and axon terminal
cell membrane bi layer, when reaches the neuromuscular junction, changes shape and folds, becomes the Motor End Plate which contains many receptors for ACH

Amenable to change with training
Small/fine movements
few muscle fibers per motor unit gives fine control movements, examples threading a needle, typing
Large/Coarse movements
Gross(large) movement many muscle fibers per motor unit, posture balance, walking
Muscle Cell Membrane (sarcolemma)
encloses contents of the cell, regulates the passage of materials in and out of the cell, also evidence that stimuli can cause cell membrane to rupture
Muscle microstructure-Nucleus
contain the genetic material/DNA growth, etc. controlled by nucleus
muscle microstructure- Cytoplasm (sarcoplasm)
Fluid is cytosol, structures that have specialized functions are the organelles