• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Pyloric stenosis

- Hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis

- Associated: erythromycin

Dx: U/S

Tx: correct electorlites

Psoriasis gets worse with...

gets worse with bblockers (MC), NSAIDs, anti-malarials, ACEi, Lithium

Ovarian cyst + pregnancy

remove in second trimester if >5cm

HCTZ (mechanism, adverse)

Adverse: hyperGLUC (glycemia, lipidemia, uricemia, calcemia), photosensitivity, rash.

Mechanism: inhibit NaCl in DCT

Complicated kidney stone Tx

Stent or percutaneous nephrostomy

Gout + HTN Tx

Tx: ARBs (eg. losartan)

Gout + kidney disease/transplant Tx

Tx: Intraarticular steroids

Likelihood ratio

- independant of prevalence

- asses the value of test, post-test probability

(+) LR = Sensitivity/1-Specificity (likelihood of disease with (+) results)

(-) LR = 1-Sensitivity/Specificity (likelihood of disease with (-) results)

- clinical significance of various results (when >2 results are positive)

Hep B recheck for infants

Between 9-15 months

Exudate vs Transudate


- protein > 0.5 of serum

- LDH > 0.6

- cancer, infection, TB, viral, PE, collagen disease


- protein < 0.5

- LDH < 0.6

- CHF, cirrhosis, PE, nephrotic, low albumin, atelectasis, dialysis

C. Difficile (cause, Sx, Dx)

Drugs that cause: Clindamycin, Fluoro., Cypro., Ceph., Penicillin.

Sx: watery diarrhea, leukocytosis

Dx: C diff toxin in stool, sigmoidoscopy

C. Difficile Tx


- WBC < 15.000, creatinine <1.5x baseline

- give Metronidazole PO


- if WBC > 15.000, creatinine > 1.5x baseline, albumin < 2.5

- give Vancomycin PO

- if ileus -> add Metro IV or rectal Vanco

- if WBC > 20.000, lactate > 2.2, megacolon/ileus

- do subtotal colectomy or diverting loop ileostomy with lavage


- Metronidazole PO

- Pulsed Vancomycin

- Fidaxomycin + microbiota transplant

Desmoid tumor (Sx, Tx, associated with)

Fibromatosis of anterior abdominal wall in women

Sx: epigastric pain, benign, aggressive

Tx: Surgery

Associated: trauma, FAP, Gardner syndrome


- on lower extremities, after trauma

- red nodule that umbilicates when squeezed.

Strep Pharyngitis

Centor criteria (need 2 or more for dx)

- tonsilar exudates

- tender cervical lymph nodes

- no cough

- fiver

if less than 2 - symptomatic treatment

Strep Pharyngitis (Tx, complications)

Tx: Penicillin or Amoxicillin

if Penicillin allergy - give Azythro./Clarithro or Cephalexin

Complication: Rheumatic fever

Sydenham's chorea

Purpusless involuntary movements

Tx: Penicillin

Late manifestation: acute rheumatic fever (reversible)


Use high PEEP with low Tidal volume (6 ml/kg)


Goal: PaO2 - 55-80 mmHg

O2 sat - 88-95%

Keep plateau pressure < 30 cmH2O

If PaO2 is low - increase PEEP

Stratified analysis

Control confounding bias

Epidural abscess

Sx: temperature, tender spine, high ESR


Tx: surgery/drainage if severe

if not severe - Vancomycin/Linezolid


> 250 neutrophils

Tx: lactulose + ceftriaxone/cefotaxime

Profilax: Norfloxacin, TMP/SMX lifelong

Model of End-Stage Renal Disease

= 3.8 bilirubin + 11.2 INR + 9.6 creatinine + 6.4

if <14 - TIPS

if >14 - no TIPS

MC cause: Diabetes, HTN

Atopic Dermatitis

Scaly rash (face, scalp), high IgE, winter

Tx: steroids, Tacrolimus

if severe - add antihistamines

if + impetigo - add Cephalexin, Mupirocin

if recalcitrant - UV light

Associated: asthma, allergic rhinitis, age <5 y/o

Herbs - Gingko biloba

Use: Memory enhancement

Side effect: Bleeding, seizure

Herbs - Ginseng

Use: Increase mental performance

Side effect: schizophrenia, headache, Steven-Johnson

Herbs - Kava

Use: Anxiety, insomnia

Side effect: liver damage

Herbs - Aconite

Use: Ianxiety

Side effect: cardiotoxic

Herbs - Saw Palmetto

Use: BPH

Side effect: increase bleeding risk

Herbs - Black cohosh

Use: postmenopausal symptoms

Side effect: liver damage, increase bleeding risk

Herbs - St John's wort

Use: depression, insomnia

Side effect: hypertensive crisis

Herbs - Licorice

Use: stomach ulcers, bronchitis

Side effect: hypertension, hypokalemia

Herbs - Echinacea

Use: cold and flu

Side effect: anaphylaxis

Herbs - Ephedra

Use: cold and flu, weight loss

Side effect: hypertension, arrhythmia, MI, stroke, seizure

Cimetidine, TMP-SMX, Probenecid

Decrease creatinine clearance

Carotid dissection

unilateral headache + Horner's

Dx: MRA, then cath angio

Tx: anticoagulate, surgery (angioplasty + stent)

HAART drug - side effect

Indinavir - nephropathy

Didanozine - pancreatitis

Abacavir - hypersensitivity

NRTIs - lactic acidosis

Nevirapine - liver failure

Zidovudine - anemia

Most common steering wheel injury

Aortic rupture

Gonococcal infection

Sx: Joint pain, tendonitis, petechial rash

Tx: Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Ceftizoxime

Ca Channel blockers - adverse effects

Side effect:

Dihydropyridines: headache, flushing, peripheral edema

Diltiazem, Verapamil: decrease contractility, constipation

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Tx: splint, steroids, NSAIDs, occupational rehabilitation

Actinic Keratosis

is premalignant, leads to squamous cell carcinoma

TMP, MTX, Phenytoin

Cause anemia

Tx: Folinic acid (Leucovorin)

Intention to treat

Preserve randomization

Bronchopulmonary Aspergilosis

History of asthma or atopic disorder

Dx: first do skin reactivity test

serum antibody

IgE (is > 1000)

eosinophils (> 500)

lung infiltrates (upper lobe)

unilateral bronchiectasis

Tx: Oral steroids

if recurs - Itraconazole PO

Afebrile pneumonia syndrome

Neonate < 6 months old

Cause: Clamidia (staccato cough), CMV, RSV, adenovirus, ureaplasma, mycoplasma

Antipseudomonal antibiotics

fluoro., ceftazidime, piperacillin, ticarcillin, aminoglyc.

Isotretinoin - adverse effects

Adverse: increase TG (cause acute pancreatitis), myalgia, hyperostosis, pseudotumor cerebri, night vision abnormalities, bone marrow suppression, liver toxicity, mucocutaneous lesions.

Lichen planus

Sx: Pruritic, polygonal papules/plaques on flexors, buccal mucosa, genitalia (whitish lacy pattern).

Dx: clinical, skin biopsy.

Associated: Hep C

Tx: steroids

Meralgia paresthetia

Lateral femoral nerve entrapment.

Decreased sensation over anterior/lateral thigh.

Tx: weight loss, avoid tight garments

Trichomonas + breast feeding

Tx: Metronidazole 2g PO 1x.

No breast feeding for 12-24h.

Parenteral feeding

Max 30 kcal/day with 1g/kg protein.

- If malnurished -> 15 kcal/day

- If on TPN and becomes hypoglycemic - most likely its sepsis.

Acute compartment syndrome

Rhabdomyolysis, renal failure


Tx: Weight loss is most effective in obese.

- if no help, then Clomiphene

Precocious pseudo-puberty

21-OH deficiency

Diarrhea after cholecystectomy

Tx: Cholestyramine


Many jerky movements + 1 vocal tic

Tx: Risperidone, Flufenazine, then Clonidine, Tetrabenazine.

Associated: OCD

HSV + pregnancy

Antivirals from 36w.

If symptomatic at the time of delivery - do c-section


Tx: SSRIs, then use Clomipramine

If seizure risk in history

No Imipenem

If Pulmonary Embolus

hold antibiotics if fever, opacities in lungs

Sarcoidosis Dx

Do parotid gland biopsy

Psoriasis exacerbation

Tx: Metoprolol


Causes testicular atrophy.

Dx: abdominal CT

Drug induced pancreatitis

from Drugs: Furosemide, HCTZ, Sulfasalazine, 5ASA, AZT, Valproic acid, Didanozine, Pentamidine, Metornidazole, Tetrabenazine

Hemorrhagic pancreatitis

Fast dropping hematocrit, high WBC (>18.000), very low Calcium

If high MCV + GI complaints

Check anti-IF Ab.

Stomach has absent rugae in fundus (atrophic gastritis).


Tx: intralesional steroids

Scuba diving

Decongestants before diving reduces barotrauma


Sx: hydrophobia, aeorphobia, agitation, pharyngeal spasm