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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared when forming chemical compounds

valence electrons

The energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element

ionization energy

One-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together

atomic radius

A form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space

electromagnetic radiation

All the forms of electromagnetic radiation

electromagnetic spectrum

The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves


The number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second


The emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal

photoelectric effect

A particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero rest mass and carrying a quantum of energy


The lowest energy state of an atom

ground state

A state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state

excited state

A three-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron


It is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

The arrangement of electrons in an atom

electron configuration

An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it

Aufbau principle

Proposed a model of the atom where electrons were in orbits at fixed distances from the nucleus of the atom

Niels Bohr

Determined a way to measure the relative masses of different elements

Stanislao Cannizzaro

Credited with the creation of the modern periodic table

Dmitri Mendeleev

His work resulted in the organization of the periodic table being by atomic number rather than atomic mass

Henry Moseley

The arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column, or group

periodic table

The elements of Group 1 of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium)

alkali metals

The elements of Group 2 of the periodic table (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium)

alkaline-earth metals

The d-block elements are metals with typical metallic properties and are often referred to as

transition metals

The elements of Group 17 (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine)


The elements of Group 18 of the periodic table (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon)

noble gases

An atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge


A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons


minimum quantity of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom


Describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles

quantum theory

Specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals

quantum numbers

No two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers

Pauli exclusion principle

Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons of singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin

Hund's rule

The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers

periodic law

Any process that results in the formation of an ion


The energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom

electron affinity

A positive ion


A negative ion