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45 Cards in this Set
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The chisquare test of independence is . . .

The hypothesis test appropriate when the independent variable and dependent variable are categorical


When two variables are statistically dependent

The independent variable has predictive power over the dependent variable


The first step in completing a chisquare procedure is

The creation of the Ho and H1


What is the formula for degrees of freedom in the chisquare?

df = (r1)(c1)


In the chisquare, the row and column totals are referred to as what? 
Marginals 

A researcher has established α=.05. If X2obt > X2crit, then the probability of obtaining this particular X2obt value by chance alone is . . . 
Less than .05 

What does a researcher do when the results of a hypothesis test reveal that X2obt > X2crit? 
Rejects the Ho


In Cramer’s V, a positive relationship means

That as the independent variable increases, so does the dependent variable


What factor in a study dictates the measure of association that can be used

The level of measurement of the independent variable and dependent variable


Statistical independence means that knowing which category a person or object falls into on the independent variable does not aid in the prediction of their placement on the dependent

true 

In a chisquare analysis, df is not based on sample size but on the size of the crosstabs table.

true 

The empirical values that appear in the crosstabs table produced from samplederived data are known as expected frequencies.

False


While the chisquare test indicates whether a statistically significant relationship between two variables exists, it does not allude to the strength or magnitude of that relationship.

true 

While statistical significance is important, it is the magnitude of the relationship that tells how meaningful the association is in practical terms.

true 

It is possible to have a statistically significant relationship but a corresponding measure of association that is very low.

true 

A researcher wants to do an analysis with an independent variable that is categorical and has three classes. The dependent variable is continuous. Which test is appropriate?

ANOVA


A professor’s research assistant has a penchant for cutting corners. Due to the rather complex nature of the ANOVA test the professor has asked the assistant to perform, he has opted, instead, to simply run a series of t tests. Why might this be a bad decision for our assistant?

B. The family wise error rate will increase, making the work fraught with unacceptably high levels of error.


Which of the following are the types of variances analyzed by an ANOVA?

D. Betweengroup and withingroup


Which of the following is the statistic for the ANOVA?

A. F


When true differences between groups substantially outweigh the random fluctuations present within each group, the ANOVA statistic . . .

D. Will be large


When betweengroup variance is small relative to withingroup variance, the ANOVA statistic will . . .

A. Be small


In ANOVA, the null hypothesis is rejected when . . .

B. The F statistic exceeds the critical value


Which of the following is the correct Ho for the ANOVA?

B. Ho: μ1 = μ2 = μ3


The ratio of betweengroup variance to withingroup variance is also known as what?

C. F statistic


The ANOVA is based upon an examination of variances.

True 

Due to the complexity of the ANOVA, researchers can, if they so choose, opt to perform a series of t tests to expedite their calculations.

False 

In ANOVA, there are three types of variances analyzed.

False 

Withingroup variance is driven by random variations between people or objects in the group and is a measure of error.

true 

dfB = k  1 is the formula for the calculation of the degrees of freedom between groups in an ANOVA.

true 

In ANOVA, it is possible to have negative values for the sums of squares and the mean squares.

False


A range of values that span a point estimate that is calculated so as to have a certain probability of containing the population parameter is called a . . .

Confidence interval


It is common practice among those in the scientific fields to set confidence levels at what?

.95 (95%) or .99 (99%)


What is a critical value?

The value of z or t associated with a given alpha level


The fact that every sample that is drawn, and every sample that could potentially be drawn, has its own unique set of descriptive statistics, is called . . .

Sampling error


A sample statistic, such as a mean or proportion that is used to estimate a population parameter, is referred to as what?

A point estimate


What acts as a sort of “bubble” that introduces flexibility into the estimate of the population parameter?

A confidence interval


A researcher has decided upon an alpha level of α = .05. Based on this, what is the chance that the confidence level the researcher calculates will not include the true population parameter?

5% 

If a researcher had N = 120, which distribution would be used to construct a confidence interval?

z


If a confidence level is 95%, what is the corresponding zscore?

±1.96


The variation in sample statistics such as means and proportions precludes direct inference from a sample to a population.

True


The alpha level itself is never used in the formula for the confidence interval. It is simply used to help determine the critical value.

True


A 99% confidence level would produce a confidence interval that has a greater chance than a 95% confidence level of being correct, but would be wider and less precise.

True


In the construction of confidence intervals, the choice of the level of confidence is up to the discretion of the researcher.

True


Alpha (α) is the probability that the confidence interval will not contain the true population parameter.

True


Confidence levels are established after the construction of the confidence intervals.

False
