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Statistics

Science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing info to draw conclusions or answer questions

Population

Entire group to be studied

Sample

Subset of the population to be studied

Individual

Person or o jet that is a member of the population being studied

Qualitative variables

Describes and individual by placing into a descriptive catagory

Nationality, gender

Quantitative variable

Variables that have value or numerical measurements

Age, measurements

Population data

Data from EVERY individual of interest

Sample data

Data from only some of the individuals of interest

Parameter

Numerical summary of a population (quantitative)

Population Parameter (PP)

Statistics

Numerical summary of a sample (quantitative)

Sample Statistics (SS)

Observational study

Measures the response w/o attempting to influence oranipulate either the response or explanatory variable

Designed experiment

When a researcher assigns the individuals in a study to a certain group, intentionally changes the value of an explanatory variable and then records the value of each response for each group

Observation studies can determine...

Associations

Experiments can determine...

Causation

Census

List of all individuals in a population along w/ certain characteristics of each individual

Lurking variable

An explanatory variable that was not considered in the experiment, but affects the value of the response variable

Simple random sample

Measurement from a population is a subset of a population that is selected in such a way that every sample of size "n" from the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample

Systematic sampling

# all members of population sequentially. Then starting at a random person, including every kth member

Cluster sampling

Divide the population into segments/clusters. Chopse a random sample of clusters. Include EVERY member of the clusters. Generally deals with geographic locations

Convenience sample

Create a sample in which the individuals are easily obtained and not based on randomness

Multi stage sampling

Uses a variety of sampling methods to create, successively, smaller groups @ each stage

Bias

If the results of the sample is not fully representative of the population

Sampling bias

Under represent a sample -> obtain data from a population that favors one group more than the other groups

Non response bias

Individuals who do not respond to surveys either cause don't care or can't get ahold of

Voluntary response variable

Individuals with strong feelings about a survey topic are more willing to take a survey

Response bias

When the answers/data of the survey do not reflect the true feelings of the respondent 7 reasons

7 reasons for response bias

Vague wording, hidden bias/wishing of questions, ordering of questions, types of questions (open it closed end), truthfulness of responses, faulty recall, interviewer influence

Experiment

A treatment is deliberately imposed on the individuals in order to observe a possible change in response

Subject

Individuals or experimental unit

Control group

Does not get the treatment

Blinding

Reason for placebo -> refers to non disclosure of the v treatment a subject is receiving

Steps 1 in designing experiment

Identify the problem to be solved

Steps 2 in designing experimen

Determine the factors that affect the response variable (ie age, health, lifestyle, etc)

Steps 3 in designing experimen

Determine the # of subjects

Steps 4 in designing experimen

Determine the impact/level of each factor from step 2 and make sure they are controlled

Steps 5 in designing experimen

Conduct your experiment and collect data

Steps 6 in designing experimen

State your conclusion, findings, and side effects